The Ultimate Medical Hackathon: How fast can we design and deploy open ventilators?

[Gui Cavalcanti] (a name you might recognize from MegaBots) spoke to a medical professional in San Francisco and talked about respirators. The question is, can we design and deploy an open source version in time to help people?
Disturbing reports from Italy indicate that when the virus infects susceptible people, the vital equipment is the ventilator. Unfortunately, they are in short supply.
When it comes to which type of respirator is needed, the problem becomes tricky, and CPAP, BIPAP or Hi-Flo oxygen NIV are all eliminated. These systems atomize the virus and almost guarantee that anyone around will be infected.
What we need is a NIV based on a nasal cannula. The system humidifies the air, mixes it with oxygen, and then continuously pushes it into the human lungs. If we can design a simple and effective system, then we can submit these plans to factories around the world and complete them. If the factory disappoints us, let people make a version at home.
If you are not sure whether you can use a ventilator, you can try other questions. Can you develop an algorithm to determine whether a person needs a ventilator. Can we recycle n95 masks? Can we make n95 masks at home? Workers also need a negative pressure tent to accommodate patients. This is especially useful if we need to build treatment facilities in a gymnasium or office. Finally, if you are a medical expert, can you train people how to help?
I am an anesthesiologist/intensive doctor, so I am a mechanical ventilation specialist. The device described in this article is not a ventilator, but a high-flow nasal catheter. The air is heated and humidified so as not to dry out the mucous membranes. It is usually sold under the Optiflow brand and should be easy to construct by bubbling the gas through 37-40C water.
If I understand correctly, the flow of a high-flow nasal cannula will be high. At these flow rates, the source of medical grade air or oxygen may be the biggest challenge.
What is the difference between welding oxygen and medical oxygen? Does it really matter if oxygen is not super pure?
To be honest, this is not the case in an emergency. They come from the same process. Oxygen is so dangerous that it must filter out any substances that may produce sparks and reactions.
I believe what he is suggesting is that the purity of welding oxygen is almost the same as medical oxygen, because otherwise it will cause a fire (explosion?) hazard due to contaminants in the pressure vessel.
Storm Raven: Technically speaking, you are right, but in fact, high concentrations of oxygen can cause explosive combustion of already extremely non-flammable items and are very dangerous. This is why they have warning signs everywhere.
Storm Crow: Below-absolutely wrong. Oxygen is extremely flammable and is a bomb. Friction can cause an explosion. Need to understand. Even at certain heights in the room, it can easily be ignited. Welders must not touch the accessories with dirty hands. The wrong gas mixture is dangerous. With reasonable awareness, you can make your own respirator. It is safe to breathe oxygen. Special conditions apply to diving. Usually called Nitrox. 32% or less is highly toxic at 30 feet bar. and many more.
In Raul-Storm Crow is correct. Oxygen is not flammable. Oxygen is just a catalyst, without it, you would not burn. Moreover, it will not make things more explosive. The explosiveness of the material depends on the chemical nature of the material and the available mounts. Otherwise, whenever someone lights the cigarette lighter, the whole atmosphere will catch fire.
Zee and Storm Raven. The flame is caused by an exothermic chemical reaction between the hydrocarbon and the oxidant. In this case, oxygen is the oxidant, so oxygen is one of two flammable reactants. According to your logic, hydrocarbons are not easy to burn in an oxygen-free atmosphere. In addition, Zee is not a catalyst because it is completely consumed in the reaction. Combustion requires only hydrocarbons, oxygen and an ignition source. At an appropriate level, static electricity may cause an explosion.
I can’t represent anyone else, but as long as the oxygen passes through some sort of filter, I will be happy to breathe O2.
Another option for oxygen may be a device called a concentrator. As long as they have electricity to use up (or more, I have to rely on my own equipment to do it), they can provide 95% O2 capacity over 2 L/min in real time. Devices that are fairly common on the market (even if I suspect they are medical grade devices, even Amazon sells them).
“I remember @PHintjens was lying on the bed with a bottle of oxygen because he had lung cancer. He would go to Brico to buy a welding torch with an oxygen bottle, which can help # oxygen#呼吸#MacGyver catalogue/poste-a-souder-bi-gaz/prod13363/”
I plan to use brazing (acetylene-oxygen) to weld my steel bicycle frame. The gas will blow away the building, but you need to chain the bottle. And there are local regulations about it.
Most modern mains-powered units will reach 95% at a power of 5lpm. Older units are struggling to exceed 3lpm
The high flow oxygen therapy is about 30-70lpm, so unfortunately the concentrator did not cut the mustard
My understanding is that there is no difference between oxygen used for medical purposes and welding itself. The container designated for medical oxygen has a complete chain of custody and is not broken. They keep the tank free of pollution. You can use a new storage tank, then establish a new chain of custody and keep it. My question is how difficult it is to fill the water tank. It’s all interesting. Can an oxygen concentrator be added to the design?
As a person with many years of breathing welding experience, the oxygen supply has always been no problem. Our fire department also filled in all BA (breathing equipment) from companies such as Airgas. No filter is required.
I am a cryogenic plant operator for a US operator. I produce liquid oxygen mainly for pilot breathing oxygen (ABO). Second, the same liquid is also heated and converted into high-pressure gaseous oxygen for medical treatment and welding machines. Oxygen is of the same grade. The only difference is the system where the high pressure cylinder is connected to the end use. Medical use is used for oil-free and sterile pipelines, where welders use oil-resistant (not necessarily present) and possibly dirty equipment. The purity is 94% or higher. Trace contaminants (such as methane, acetylene, nitrous oxide) are kept below the level applicable to ABO. If the contaminant level exceeds this level, dump it, clean and refill the tank to obtain a saturated sample . I have never returned a batch to an unsafe level in my factory operation for 10 years.
There is a portable oxygen generator. Why can’t the same equipment be built into the ventilator to reduce the need for piped oxygen and reduce the chance of explosion? O2 is made in situ and consumed there.
Oxygen will not explode. It supports combustion, but the lack of combustible fuel will only make the ignition source burn better, I think it will be hotter.
As far as I know, oxygen comes from one source, and it’s all the same. The oxygen used for breathing or diving needs to be vacuum cleaned before refilling to ensure certified purity, while industrial cylinders are just returning When refilling. I have used industrial oxygen for many years, and when the diving respirator has been used for 5 years, there is no adverse effect. I promise to use it in life and death situations.
To avoid fire, do not use waxy chopsticks on your lips. The lips become dry when you exhale. Nurses at the hospice care center told them to switch to KY jelly-a different use than intended.
Similarly, sufficiently pure oxygen will cause the body to stop breathing. There must be at least a trace amount of carbon dioxide in the blood to trigger breathing. I did not pursue any medical profession.
I have performed gas welding since the 1960s, and breathing oxygen can relieve headaches. Non-toxic, will not burn, but will burn other things. The problem with covid 19 is that the lungs are stiff and you need a pressure difference to make breathing happen. If you don’t use oxygen, is air alone enough? Need to find out. Some of us are already working hard
There are many types of ventilators, from cpap to very complex ventilators for intensive care. CPAP only provides slightly positive pressure to assist patients who breathe spontaneously and release professional respirators in emergency situations. They are substances used for night apnea. I designed and manufactured an ultra-cheap and easy-to-manufacture container made of plastic bottles. It is not certified, and it is only necessary to use handicrafts in severe emergency situations, especially in poor countries. The problem is that I don’t know how to spread it. can you help me?
You have filled the problem with oxygen and derailed the entire conversation, aiming to help save people all over the world. This is really amazing. I have overcome it and move on, thank you
MAX, I am trying to build a combination of CPAP and full face snorkel mask. Can you contact me by your method? I want battery power and portable. Thank you!
I believe that the Thrompe mechanism can solve all problems. With only water flow, you can get high-quality compressed air without pump residues (oil).
I live in the same tank from the gas supplier. The difference lies in the document and customer storage method. I am very happy to be able to extract gas from the welding tank-just make sure it is not acetylene :-)
In fact, acetylene was the earliest gaseous pain reliever. A stinking thing will cause your head to spin a bit, which may cause death. Similarly, spread wet sheets on the operating room table and on the floor to control static electricity and fire
In addition, the three astronauts who were quickly killed in the lunar spacecraft were having 100% O2 (under 1/3 atmospheric pressure). In addition, oxygen is very toxic.
The difference is to ensure purity. (I am a biologist, and I have purchased different grades of oxygen.) But between welding and medical treatment, there are many grades that can be accepted at a critical juncture.
There is another factor, which is relatively small, but needs to be mentioned. Can pump oil used to lubricate valves, etc.-I think it is chemical pneumonia? Lipid pneumonia? I only know one case, a diver had some oil in his tank. MD should know more.
In any case, we can use industrial oxygen in a reasonable pedigree-I have no doubt that the supplier will be happy to divert the tank for emergencies-and ensure that the oil is collected in the baffle or take other precautions.
I work in the industrial gas industry and can tell you that the products are the same (liquid o2, almost every factory is medically certified), but they are loaded into the cylinders in different ways (different skids require more analysis)
If there are any standard lubricants in the oxygen production process, you may not be able to buy oxygen from that supplier because it will be a chimney. Silicone oil, maybe?
Note that equipment that processes oxygen under high pressure and extremely high purity must be free of oil or any other products that may catch fire. Increasing oxygen concentration and pressure will cause combustion at low temperatures, even without sparks.
I am a professional diver and diving doctor. We have received patient training for diving accident treatment in the field of mixed gas saturation and air diving. There is no difference between breathing oxygen and welding oxygen, the only difference is the bottle it enters. The medical bottles are coated, so they will not rust and must be checked regularly, while the welded bottles are not checked with the naked eye for rust and to such an extent. As for the oil in the tank, there is absolutely no oil in the oxygen cylinder. The smallest amount of lubricant on any thread or valve can cause an instant explosion. All equipment that must be in contact with high-pressure oxygen must be oil-free, otherwise it will burn immediately. with no exceptions. This is basic chemistry.
I confirm what Nathan said. Welding bottles can only be inspected visually; I have also seen someone say that high-purity high-pressure systems can work without oil. This is not always the case. There are many PTFE base oils (Fomblin, Kluberalfa, etc.) that have been tested and can work under high pressure and high temperature. I believe that they are also accepted in the medical system. Re-analysis will prove whether their quality is sufficient.
The use of adsorbent tubular filters can avoid “chemical pneumonia”. They will capture most of the VOC from the lubricant and sparse oxygen to allow it to pass through normally. Finding a large number of adsorbent tubes can be a challenge. Another challenge is to determine the saturation of its VOC before replacing the adsorbent tube if it is used as a filter. It can be estimated based on the information and flow rate of the adsorbent tube manufacturer and the estimated contamination of the lubricant (degassing rate under temperature and pressure).
If you pass it through the bubbler, the oil will not enter the lungs. Maybe it is 2 redundancy.
Hi, so what we actually need is pressurized/compressed air, adjust it to a certain level, then pass through an oil filter, and then through water (maintained at a certain temperature) to humidify the air. Am i right?
We have an oxygen generator for my son. If the power supply is interrupted or the transportation needs a spare oxygen cylinder. Before insurance approval, an EMT friend actually suggested that we buy medical grade equipment, but it should be filled with welding oxygen. As long as you filter during filling to grab any contaminants from the inside of the welded storage container, you should be good. Passing oxygen through a bubbler also helps, and water can be used as an auxiliary filter. Of course only emergency situations.
Will oxygen bubbling through the air cushion first and then bubbling through the water, but still cannot filter and humidify the air required by such ventilators?
I used to work for Swedish air gas producer AGA (now part of the German Linde Group), and I can assure you that there is no difference at least in Europe. It is too expensive to have different medical and technical gas treatment methods. The only difference is that the medical oxygen sold comes with a certificate certifying that it is medical grade, while others are not. It’s just a way to increase prices and income.
There is no difference at all, just the level of the purity test, otherwise the oxygen content in the “welding” oxygen is 99.99%
The only major difference to consider is quality. The cleanliness of welding gas cylinders is low. Therefore, they often contain oil in industrial sites. The actual compressor used to fill the storage tank can produce the same concentration of O2.
The difference between the four different levels of oxygen (aerospace, medicine, welding, and research) is not the quality of the oxygen, but the chain of custody of the tank. …Oxygen can be considered medical grade because you start with a clean tank without contaminants.
I’m not a doctor, but I’m playing on TV – I think even air mechanical entry has some positive effects compared to control – at least for the most severe cases of respiratory distress
I didn’t even play the role of a doctor on TV, but I was a clown and blew up a few balloons, thinking that the exit is the part to stop things from breaking out.
As early as 2004, I participated in a project related to acute lung injury related to blood transfusion, and I remember that if the ventilation is improper, the ventilation itself may cause harm. Unfortunately, I only graduated from university for two years, and I am committed to electronic monitoring of patients undergoing blood transfusion instead of using the ventilator correctly, so my memory is very vague. See the example below. I don’t understand what low tidal volume means.
They conducted a study and found that lower pressure is actually safer for patients. The normal volume pumped into the patient’s lungs can actually stretch the lungs and cause problems. The article shows that lower volume/smaller air strength is safer.
On Gemeni, astronauts got rid of it under low pressure for several weeks. Under surface pressure, I think you will get a day or two. Under stress (diving), you can’t get rid of it at all!
It’s basically oxygen and messing up the gradient, which means that your lungs’ work of exchanging gas will actually oxidize the molecules in your lungs, causing edema, and ARDS is exactly what we hope oxygen can solve. problem.
Therefore, given that we are treating ARDS (which is indeed the meaning of SARS), we don’t want to take any risk of lung damage that can worsen the lungs.
I am a diving expert in saturation and commercial diving and a diving medical technician. I can tell you now, as long as you are not less than 20 meters of sea water or work for more than a few days, you can breathe 100% O2 for a long time. But we are not talking about 100% oxygen. We are talking about adding 100% oxygen to regular air.
I saw divers’ comments on O2, but I also want to know the dialogue between the diving regulator and the respirator. Just an uncultivated idea.
Indeed, the flow rate may be 20-70l/min, and the oxygen content may be between 30-100%. You need to add a lot of oxygen.
Assuming a choice between 21% oxygen (naturally occurring) and 50% oxygen mixture (for example), is not 50% oxygen clinically recommended? O2 has a molecular weight of 32 and nitrogen has a molecular weight of 28. Can the rotary separator provide a lower quality but 100% usable O2 source? For example: rotating a 12-inch diameter cylinder 3 inches deep, heavier oxygen will be attracted to the outer wall. Will the lighter N2 be found in the middle? Not looking for high purity, but looking for something that can be inserted.
Unfortunately, such a small system may actually produce trace amounts of oxygen, but cannot achieve the required flow rate. The summary of this article gives you an understanding of the technical requirements of the gas separation centrifugal system.
Why do we need this number? In the Navy, we use the rule of thumb of HR 1scf o2 per person for survivability calculations.
Your calculation is for healthy people whose lungs work rate is 100%. “Survivable” means that some people may still struggle.
Oxygen generators using hollow fiber membranes can provide these rates. Basically, hang the air compressor on the inlet, there is an oxygen outlet and an exhaust gas outlet.
I have done it and it works. If you vent nitrogen and use a bypass flow as the effluent, a standard nitrogen separation membrane filter can produce up to about 45% O2. It can produce very high flow rates. These are the types of nitrogen blankets used by machine shops to fill tires and industrial applications. The bypass flow is almost as high as the wastewater flow. What you need is an oil-free compressor, a good pre-filter and an appropriate size nitrogen separation membrane.
Hi, curious @ChrisHruska, where did you get the film? Really interested in trying to use it in an oxygen generation system. Thank you!
Electrolysis can produce sufficiently pure oxygen and humidify it in advance. Not easy to store, but may be suitable for immediate use. Who can add points for this?
This quora response may be instructive: 1- second / answer / Tom-Nathe? ch=10&share=f6280cda&srid=pGoo
What about the proton exchange membrane technology they use in the hydrogen production of fuel cells? Or is it a hydrogen production equipment that also produces by-product O2?
You can also damage the microwave transformer by winding a larger gauge wire to one side with only one or two loops, and then rectifying the output to obtain a DC output. This is how people make induction heater coils that require a lot of current instead of voltage.
The point seems to be: the required voltage is about 1.4V, and the efficiency increases with Yingshui. Commercial systems operate at 80 – 90°C. You need high current. (4 – 6 kAˣm-2)
Maybe you can get rid of the old electric motor book, and use the mains AC motor to drive the low-voltage high-current Faraday generator. …. Because you want to produce a lot of high current MOSFETs from China now?
I want to know if a larger device can be built to perform most of the functions of the ventilator. The air supply and exhaust for each patient can be controlled by an auxiliary pump that changes oxygen and humidity. Similar to the backbone of a stove, this stove supplies electricity to a separate pipe in the home. There may be a main pump sucking in fresh air and distributing it to different areas.
Other replies said that they need 20-70L of oxygen per minute, so every mole of 22.4L of oxygen requires 2 moles (44.8 liters) of oxygen per minute, while water electrolysis requires 237 kJ/mol. Therefore, 2mol/minute * 237kJ/mol * 1 minute/60 seconds = 7.9kJ/second = 79​​00 watts. 1.23V is required for electrolysis, so it is assumed that the ideal switching voltage is 6422A.
In the real world, the efficiency will decrease. This is a commercial 10kW system with an hourly price of 1000L (16.6L/min). In the end, each patient may require 30kW or more. Water electrolysis system-10kw
I just calculated this: you need 26,802 Ah to produce 22,414 / 4 liters (4 Faradays per mole). In other words, every time you pass through an electrochemical cell, electrolysis will give you 0.21 liters of oxygen. Suppose you want to increase natural oxygen from 21% Vol (air) to 32%, and suppose you breathe 10 times per minute, you need 3,3 liters of electrochemically generated oxygen. Divide 3,3 liters per minute by Ah Ah. 21 liters per Ah. You get 942 A (don’t forget to multiply min/h by 60), which is much higher than the current output of any conventional voltage source. Assuming that a self-built electrolytic cell is impossible to work at a voltage lower than 5 volts, you will end up with about 5 kW of power, which is more than what you usually have at home. If you have more experience in medicine, (I’m just an electrochemical expert), you may make a difference in these numbers, but the result is the same. Greetings from Wolfgang, Germany
In a severe shortage, you may want to consider using an aviation oxygen source. The pandemic appears to be dramatically reducing commercial airline flights and their subsequent oxygen demand. This oxygen is designed for human consumption.
pretty good idea! I can see that if they think they can find a way to save the company, then they are willing to cut deals.
But follow the same line of thinking: what about emergency oxygen candles? It’s a bit dated, a bit radiating, but relatively cheap. Suppose we can buy materials in bulk, build a reaction vessel outside (which can be controlled like drips, like those old acetylene lamps), and then transport them through the filter pipe and compress them into tanks or low-pressure air bags. (I know, this is a more comprehensive idea, but may it be more suitable for remote areas? Or is there a serious 02 shortage or other problems…)
Can you use the plane as a temporary hospital? It may not be used in an intensive care unit that requires pressurized ventilation, but in developing situations, pressurize the cabin with oxygen-enriched air, or use the mask and oxygen distribution system already on board. We have airports in every city and convenient road transportation.
Or, aircraft manufacturers (aircraft manufacturers that have closed their production lines) can continue to build oxygen distribution systems, but will they be installed in hospitals? This may be a ward-scale solution rather than a one-patient solution.
I really like this idea. I’m sure that airlines are currently looking for sources of income, and airplanes seem to be a good containment and processing facility. Lift them up and fly to where they are needed most.
Regulations, is aviation oxygen only used for pilots? I think the emergency oxygen dripping to passengers is produced by an endothermic chemical reaction, as mentioned in the previous comment? These units were airlifted as additional cargo and caught fire. This is the cause of the car accident in the Florida Everglades. These corpses cannot be recovered because the crocodiles were eaten.
I know you can buy medical grade O2 from storage tanks of companies such as AIRGAS and put it down…simply put it in the system…large storage tanks…they can also be used for diving gas…mass production and delivery to the whole country Every day.
What about diving tanks? Is it possible that oxygen for diving is another possibility for oxygen supply? Diving is mainly a recreational activity, so please make sure they can stop diving for a while to save lives
Yes, the oxygen supply will be tight, but other “non-medical” oxygen sources (such as welding oxygen) are actually indistinguishable. The main difference is the storage tank and the chain of custody-tracking medical oxygen, while other sources are not.
In many cases, blowing in air is better than not blowing in, even indoor air is better than nothing. Especially in the case where the CO2 exhaled in the dead corner of the breathing aggravates respiratory distress, a high-flow nasal catheter can be used for non-invasive irrigation.
In my opinion, if you want to do anything at this level and the required scale, you need to choose the simplest technique and start subdividing source parts and production.
Is it really enough to provide continuous flow instead of imitating inhale/exhale? Considering this this morning, I will be very happy to help you! It seems feasible to heat the water to 40°C. There is no problem in pushing a constant flow into the water.
If there is no n95 mask, can the exhaled/contaminated air be fed through disinfectant or boiling water?
What about ultraviolet light? Will it “neutralize” the virus? Let our medical staff not have to clean up the virus.
If UV rays are reliable for the exhaust flow we are talking about, it would be a good choice. Hot water sounds like a good idea. I heard that the current virus cannot survive temperatures above 27 degrees Celsius-but I should think that it is second-hand information and needs to be checked. Therefore, the water may not need to be too hot. Here is some research on UV: about using it in a more environmental way, but I guess it can be used strongly in a closed container in this application. (Not an expert)
I think if you want to exhaust oxygen-enriched air, you should avoid using heat and fuel sources.
The nasal NIV is not closed, so the person continues to ventilate, but a high concentration of gas is delivered to the lungs to help gas exchange.
Produce aerosols. All coronavirus patients should be ventilated through the ET tube, mainly because of the complexity of ARDS and the gas exchange and lung compliance of these patients, and partly to protect the staff. Compared with invasive ventilator, nasal high flow is available and very cheap.
By the time most people are infected, creating aerosols for the COVID-19 virus is no longer a concern.
For people who have been infected or recovered, breathing in several of the same viruses will not make much difference.
I don’t use a lot on building ventilators, but for masks, I have done a lot of research and proposed a reusable fabric design. This fabric can be used freely and woven fine enough to prevent bacteria, viruses and Dust passes through. The item can be soaked in bleach (to kill all bacteria, such as Jik) and washed for wearing. I have made a few samples and I hope to share the patterns and links to articles describing the advantages of the fabric. Anyone can make these masks. Each person only needs two, one to be disinfected and one to wear.
This is something I am very interested in. I have seen some designs, but your design can be better. I would love to hear more about it.
Please set up a free mode on the Internet. There are several modes available (sounds not as good as you describe), but the instructions are in Chinese.
This is something that many retired nurses and others hope to produce for our working sisters and brothers who are currently working in the hospital. Please share your design here!
I am very interested in me. My daughter is a veterinarian and they have always had to make their own masks. We have several sewing machines and several servers here
Please share the instructions for making this mask. My daughter and niece are medical staff. They need this!
I have experience in designing negative pressure containment areas to reduce asbestos. How to treat the exhaust gas in the negative pressure containment area. In order to reduce the negative pressure, you must constantly exhaust air from the inside of the space so that nothing can be emitted, but the air must flow somewhere through the fan and HEPA filter. It may be easy to disinfect the patient’s breath, but what about indoor air?
My impression is that HEPA filters are suitable for filtering out most viruses, but not all. However, if you want to ionize the air before the filter, then use a positively charged sieve before the HEPA filter. Like this research
Just consider an ultraviolet (XEnON) lamp on the back/exhaust side of the HEPA filter, and then pass the treated air through the second filter…want to fancy…at the first filter/xenon lamp and The second filter stage passes through the silver wire, so you will not accumulate viruses on the surface for a short time.
Hi Susan, I would love to see the design too! It sounds great, if I can get the materials, I can make these for people.
I’m working hard-I have found a filter material that is easy to use and designed to prevent the virus from spreading with smoke and other substances. It should be possible to use a hot clue gun and some fabric to make a mask, a box fan and some tape to make an indoor air cleaning system, and even a soda bottle and a hot glue gun to make a canister respirator. Do more research on this.
I would love to know your model: a family member has been warned that their hospital is ready to accept NYC overload cases. They don’t have enough masks. My wife and I are setting up a (free) handicraft industry to make fabric masks. Please email me Thank you!
Can you make a mask? Is it even just as a proof of concept to be valuable at this point? Doing nothing is worse than failing to do something! ! ! !
Liquids like oil have a much higher boiling point and viscosity than water, and perhaps the gas bubbling through these liquids at high temperatures may kill the virus. Basically the air returned by frying.
Copper can kill the coronavirus, and copper mesh filters can be made, which can be multi-layered to achieve maximum efficiency. Increase the chance of collision between the airborne coronavirus and the copper surface. Copper ions destroyed the outer shell of the coronavirus. I am not sure about the reaction time (the time the virus is exposed to copper) and the ideal temperature for the best results. Heating the copper mesh with resistance can increase efficiency. The dry hot air and viruses collide with the surface of the copper mesh multiple times. Bill Keevil studies coronavirus and copper in the United States. It may be as easy as applying voltage to the copper mesh contained in the stainless steel housing connected to the ventilator.
Can the conventional liquid heat transfer made of copper be converted into an exhalation filter?
Hey, this sounds interesting. Is it possible to charge the virus with static electricity and increase the chance of collision with the copper surface to minimize the distance the virus travels through the grid? They researched this. It is absolutely possible.
I like this sound, please keep a good mind! Still want to know whether nano silver mesh or fabrics similar to the fungicides used on socks will work? Maybe it’s multiple fine layers.
“Shows that copper can kill the coronavirus”, please provide a reference. I don’t believe this is true. This means 24 hours on copper or cardboard and 72 hours on stainless steel/plastic- covid-19
I have seen 2 others, one said 40 minutes and the other said 4 hours. However, the relative durability on other materials seems to be equal, so I guess this is how big the “droplets” you place here, local humidity and other factors.
Use a hair dryer to suck away the contaminated air. If the temperature is not high enough, please choose one from the hardware store (650°C blower for paint removal). They are very cheap. The hair dryer can also be improved by adding a long insulated pipe to the vent, which will give the hot air more time to destroy the virus. (The virus can’t survive because neither Corona nor Stuxnet can survive.) Anyway, I don’t think dealing with polluted air is the main issue.
Can CPAP machines be modified? They warm and humidify the air, but the way the air is introduced into the patient is different. Is it possible to make a nasal cannula joint to fit the end of the hose that usually wears a mask? (Of course, it’s far from perfect, but it’s better than nothing.)
I do not think so. I have a CPAP. It’s not like a ventilator at all. It only slightly increases the pressure of the incoming air (not that much). You still need to breathe.
PS: By the way, on most CPAPs, warming and humidification are an “option”-I have done it, but I got rid of it because I felt the wall was closed by that moist air. In addition, the entire process of cleaning and disinfection is PITA (after all, all bacteria “love” the warm temperature it uses).
In winter, the cold air can make the nose a little dry and cause the skin to crack, but I use the Q tip to apply some petroleum jelly to it to protect the skin, and the effect is very good.
I don’t know the hospital in your country, but the hospitals I have seen have central oxygen, vacuum and some other valves, I don’t remember. There are pipelines from the entire building to the central pumping station. I suspect that hospitals in the third world are built in this way. We in developed countries may have enough equipment, but I think people in Africa or refugees in Syria are screwed up by them.
I disagree. I believe that CPAP can definitely be modified to have some mechanical and sensor functions, which can inhale/exhale.
The spacer is 3D printed and installed between the CPAP mask and the hose as an accessory through the O2 pipeline. In an emergency, cut a small slit in the hose near the mask, insert the O2 line, and seal it with tape.
If it is placed in a negative pressure tent, the exhaust fan of the tent will be equipped with a HEPA filter, thereby reducing the virus threat of atomization.
My redesigned airsense 10 and many other CPAPs have an “air ramp” that can gradually increase the pressure to make people fall asleep.
All you have to do is to crack the software used for the “respiratory tract” to simulate breathing. I am stuck in a continuous loop. Similarly, you may not need super high oxygen. For everyone who needs a ventilator, if oxygen is added after the CPAP water station, or the oxygen concentration is low enough, you can fill some industrial garbage bags with oxygen, and then put the CPAP machine in it. That may have to be less than 25%. 02. Since the oxygen content in the air is about 20%, the final concentration may be about 45%. If it fails, you might stick some closets with tape and fill the closets with some O2. Trash bags are being used so that you do not overuse them. Throw CPAP there, and over time you will get a gradually decreasing oxygen gradient, but every once in a while, you will introduce another pure oxygen garbage bag in the big closet.
Yes, their settings can reduce the pressure during exhalation. The result of using ordinary cpap feels like good air or bad air. The weight of breast components, ribs, muscle skin, etc. passively promotes outflow. There are actually some complicated dual ventilators and computer-controlled ventilators. Your lung specialist or sleep specialist should be able to help. They should also consider the specification of the solution. Cpap/bipap companies include Apria and Norco. See if you can contact their engineers and respiratory therapists. All these ideas I’m reading (especially when used in combination) can save many lives.
One option for disinfecting a warm and humid environment is to simply place two of all the wet parts in the system, replace them every 12 hours, and then put the unused parts in boiling water for 10 minutes.
I was considering using a CPAP machine with continuous oxygen concentration. If they are to be used at home, pollution may not be a big problem. What is the flow rate of the ventilator? What is the flow rate of CPAP? Three liters per minute higher?
CPAP machines are currently used as a pioneer in patient intubation and mechanical ventilation in hospital ICUs. Supplemental oxygen is added to the side port of the machine, and the person is added to force oxygen into the blood through the swollen and thickened lung tissue.
Will that cause the same problems as CPAP and increase the spread of the virus? The only difference is the size of the hole and the number of rebreaths. (CPAP relies on rebreathing a portion of the air and a calibrated leak to limit the pressure and the amount of rebreathing.) Are jet breathing opportunities better?
It’s so cool, it’s a manual resuscitator, which can be operated with a robot hand
What should I do if I use SCUBA rebreathing technology to clean the air and close the loop when oxygen is injected?
I was thinking about the same thing… The old DIY rig looks easy to make, and I think scrubbing the carbon dioxide with sodium hydroxide will have the added benefit of killing any viruses that are exhaled (at least to make it clean). It should be fairly easy to add some activated carbon for additional filtration.
The only thing I worry about may be the humidifier, because NAOH (Lye)’s entire “contact with water will cause violent foaming and splashing.”
This allows most boxes to be checked, in an emergency, it can be easily built, and can be used as a solid platform to achieve the desired goals.
– Simple structure and reasonable price of consumables – Closed air circulation to prevent/reduce the chance of infection – Relatively low cost – Easy to modify/adapt/clean – Easy to add to existing infrastructure or use on site – Portable – Reasonable technical content Low, option to easily add functionality
I mean when they describe one machine and show another, it gives a great hope. Yes, I believe this is just entertainment. How long does it take a PI to control the 16×2 LCD?
I have designed and manufactured any number of nasogastric feeding tubes and many other gastrointestinal related equipment. I believe I can easily design/replicate a high flow nasal catheter.
For various exhaust methods in COVID, there are good intensive care reference, which may be very helpful. If you are designing a viable prototype, you will consider contacting the author
If we assume that all elective surgeries are postponed in an emergency, how many machines for mechanical ventilation can be reused during surgery?
The average length of hospital stay for elective patients is approximately 4 days, of which (for example) 3 cases and 1 or 2 cases of intensive care/advanced care after surgery. The length of hospitalization for 70-year-old patients with viral lung problems and ventilation is approximately 16-20 days. This is approximately equal to ten to one equivalence. That is, 10 elective courses will be cancelled in each emergency.
I think the situation is worse, and I hope that people who recover from surgery don’t need to be ventilated longer than in the operating room…
Yes, I am a plumber. Portable O2 machines can concentrate oxygen, the steam in the sterilizer can be piped to heat/humidify the air, intubation and plastic pipes are everywhere, but we may need manufacturers to expand the construction of these devices and require more power generation machine.
This way the patient can breathe well, but is there a need for higher concentrations of O2 in the air? Do they need intubation? This is a lower respiratory disease, a lot of fluid. Can intubation really generate enough pressure?
I am a product developer with extensive experience in software and hardware. I may also contact a large number of engineers.
I am engaged in business development in a small production area in western New York State. We have a large number of metal bending machines and precision manufacturers. If there is a way to develop easy-to-build designs with basic interfaces, I believe we have a platform that can quickly build these machines.
Have you also seen the post with the link to the MIT 2010 design? If not, I can send it to you. I am
Hi, I am interested in discussing the project I am working on with you. Portable ventilator,, thanks Bill Rasmussen
I just discovered this amazing website today, ifbyou is still looking for it, very interested. See my review of CPAP.
You can consult a 3d printing company to quickly produce a simple and effective device prototype that can be quickly mass-produced. This will save many lives and can be used as a temporary solution until the patient is put on a conventional ventilator.
Our platform can visit 450 3D printing locations in more than 40 countries/regions, and can provide more than 1,200 3D printing materials. The only problem is that we have no design. I also made a list of key parts necessary for corona (UK government list):
List of important parts –
Article about valves 3D printed in Italy. There are currently 10 patience using these methods:
Okay, you want to help! This page contains more up-to-date information about 3D printer owners + Discord Channel.
Is the breastplate ventilator suitable for this virus? Similar to the iron lung used to treat polio. Obviously, these will be the easiest to make.
The short answer used to be “no”. They needed to be molded onto the individual, using plaster to make the chest, and then fiberglass to make the shell. There may be improvements when working with me, but as far as I know I haven’t done much.
If you want to consider whether it is appropriate, what should you do with lung iron? (Yes, they look terrible, but now is not the time to be critical of aesthetics.)
Iron lungs can be used, but…you need to find them, and then you need to replace all the gaskets and rubber seals…if you can find them. Rubber has been in poor condition since the 1950s.
Regarding the negative pressure iron lung-or emergency, both respirators are installed within 24 hours in an emergency. Can they be used as emergency measures? No intubation is required, and the patient does not need sedatives (which in itself can be dangerous).
As for the Hack community-a few years ago, after New York City decided that they would only pick up 1 approved container, I designed a garbage compactor powered by a store vacuum. I used one of those 96-gallon large Rubbermaid trash cans, cut it into small pieces with plywood, and vacuum sealed it to the top of the container (flat) with a rubber door seal. Then, I cut a circular piston plywood insert, about 2 feet in diameter, with a cylindrical rubber bladder with vulcanized seams. All are sealed on plywood with silicone rubber. I left a vacuum cleaner attachment to hook up the shop vacuum cleaner. These jars are airtight and work well-thicker jars. good results.
As an emergency measure, you can put a seat or chair inside and make a trash can with plywood and seal it with a hole in the neck. What kind of pressure is needed for this ventilator. If there were no her in the hospital, would I take my 92-year-old mother out in one breath?
I just want to know how often the negative pressure ventilator-iron lung will work? They saved a lot of money for polio victims, enabling them to survive for 2 weeks and enabling the disabled to work again-hope so.
Obviously, I am not sure about the specific design requirements, but there must be a large number of model makers, prop makers, special effects makeup artists, etc. who are working and can easily complete a lot of work. I have done a lot of similar work in the production of SFX prostheses, molds, masks, armors, etc. Although the resin dries quickly, it still takes several hours for each unit (if each is customized). Obviously, if feasible, it can be mass-produced quickly in various sizes.
Boiling the virus in water sounds legal, but the settling time of water droplets in hot water is not complete enough. Similar to the ultraviolet rays in the backpack-type water purifier installed on the exhalation exhaust port, the PAP machine can be used and can disinfect the exhaled air. As long as the light is shielded, the patient will not be harmed by ultraviolet rays.
My idea is to use a single piston design that uses a simple electric motor to generate the stroke required for ventilation. The simple dial can adjust the stroke speed and the amount of oxygen, and a warm water container is used to bubble the oxygen through. The cost of this device may be less than $200, and the assembly time is less than 8 hours. As the “exhaust” stroke delivers oxygen, the “intake” stroke can use a one-way valve to extract the exhaled air to prevent air mixing.
of. The piston stroke volume will be calculated as a normal respiratory volume, which I have seen on the website chart, for example 7 cc per kilogram of body weight. This is a project in the 1950s I have posted some information and research that I have done on this website, but I can’t find it now
If there is no complete respirator, can it be used with a concentrator (or multiple)? Is the 3D printing of the mask helpful for the 3D photo scan of the patient’s mouth?
I studied 3D printed masks. Because of the filter, it is very difficult. Please refer to the following link for homemade masks:
Hi Albin, due to the shortage of ventilators we are facing, it would be a great choice if you could describe what is needed for such a system?
For example: ideal and minimum system ideal: o2 connection, o2 filter, intubation connection, humidifier, heating, controllable pressure, flow, etc. Minimal: Can it be used without o2? Humidifiers and heating devices seem to be easy to implement, can the flow and pressure be fixed? What is that amount?
For an open system, the flow will need to be 150 lpm. See BiPAP. For closed systems, the maximum is 100 lpm, but it is more likely to be an average of 60 lpm. Without traffic, patients may starve to death. For pressure, you need to limit the pressure to 40 to 45 cmH2O. Lung injury occurred at approximately 32 cmH2O. I think a safe and easy to construct ventilation method is airway pressure release ventilation. Apply constant pressure and release regularly for 0.6 to 1.0 seconds. APRV or two-stage. This is the safest way of ventilation I know. All you need is a flow generator, a pressure limiting device and a release time method. This mode does not require a peep valve.
Does the device only supply oxygen-enriched air at a predetermined rate? Still need a respirator control mechanism?
In the 1950s and 1960s, the fire department began to carry ventilators. That was before the formal EMS training of technicians. They eventually evacuated the troops because they caused more harm to the patients before going to the hospital. Things like over-pressurizing an injured lung. Therefore, you have to be careful and recommend cheap alternative devices who know.
I think you might already be thinking about the “demand valve”, which is a round handheld device with a button on the top. Yes, they are terrible. Within the safe range of human lungs, there is no pressure release or no pressure release. Connect directly to the cylinder.
Double or triple permeator for water humidity control. For oxygen, I don’t know its solubility and technical problems
Both respirators can work (iron lung) Obviously you built it with plywood?
How long is the durability of that pool (to grow at an ideal temperature)? Will it not become a source of infection by itself?
What if you only use standard respirators (such as cpap), but reintroduce the exhaust gas into the treatment system (UV, ozone, desiccant, factory)? In this way, it can be retrofitted to an existing respirator, all you need is a new mask and accessories. What is worrying is whether the mask seal is sufficiently leakproof, and if too many measures are required for air treatment, what is the price/easiness of such treatment.
I have always wondered if it is possible to reconfigure the scuba closed circuit respirator as an alternative source?
I think it seems easy to create this device, but we also need it to clear the regulations so that people can trust the device. Does anyone have any ideas on how to make equipment comply with ISO? Unless certain safety requirements are met, I just can’t see the device in actual use.
There are indeed millions of oil-free air compressors in the world. Owners and contractors use them for construction. How to use them in ventilator packaging?
The medical device designer is here. Would I say this is a humid air pump?
What I saw in the news is that people who have difficulty breathing need intubation at first, but then they almost always need a suitable ventilator, which is more difficult to obtain. Therefore, building an open source ventilator may be the most important
If the device described in this article is not a “ventilator,” what is needed to save lives during a crisis? I think the plan to build an open ventilator is very ambitious, but I don’t want people to spend time and energy to solve the problem by building the wrong equipment. What are your medical opinions?
For the nasal cannula, a 12-volt portable air pump (usually used to inflate the tire) may be used, the nozzle of which is cut from the inner tube. Cut the end of the bicycle inner tube nozzle and glue it to the end of the 2L bottle cap to seal it. It can then be connected to a 12-volt portable air pump. A way will have to be found to use bubble gas as input to the gas pump. Aquarium pumps can also be used.
I have been thinking about cutting off the top of a 2-liter plastic bottle, drilling some small holes in the end cap, and inserting a cloth at the end as a filter for the bottle mask, so that people can protect themselves where there is no mask.
I’m not sure what you are going to do, the vents are different from CPAP, and there are many different masks. The first problem with masks is that if they can’t filter viruses, the usage rate is not high.
Always the opposite, and out of the box here. Is there an effective way to filter out the “nebulized” exhalation that can be used with CPAP. It seems that everyone I know has CPAP. Is it reasonable to use CPAP as a last resort when there is no caregiver or no other people around are contaminated? Can the fabric produced using high-quality household hot air filters be placed on the face of a patient in the hope of grounding the exhaled virus? I have no medical education, so I am going to delete all these simple ideas. Also, Albin, are you saying that it is not the high-flow nasal cannula we need, or is it an acceptable alternative?
Hello, I am looking at a small constant flow device. It is installed at the end of the tube. The pressure is adjustable. The flow rate is based on flow and compliance. It is possible that we can use LMA or conventional intubation.
A study showed that a ventilator can be used for up to 4 patients, which is the result of an emergency MD demonstration. She said that this type of ventilator has been successfully used in the crowd shooting in Vegas during Las Vegas. At that time, a former student remembered about it. Research shows that despite insufficient ventilation in emergency situations, it can still be used to save lives.
It can and should only be used in severe situations, but take a look at how severe the situation in Italy is. The hospital was overwhelmed by the number of new cases, and doctors found that they had made difficult choices in choosing who to use ventilators and who to send home.
To me, connecting multiple patients to a ventilator seems more feasible (and faster!) than making a DIY ventilator. Let us do some simple things ourselves, these things can still help, such as masks or face shields that are relatively easy to make even at home, such as and https : //
A ventilator is an invasive device, not just a ventilator – you need a skilled HCP to manage the ventilator and the patient. Of course not something to do at home
We cannot use spare parts in the hardware store to make ventilators. It is not expandable, you need HCW to operate them. How do you manually manufacture 30,000 ventilators in a few weeks, deliver, deploy and support them, and train personnel to operate and maintain them in 100 different countries?
We need to find ways to use non-invasive treatments that will not pollute the workplace and keep people away from ventilators. This will infect health workers and increase casualties.
See my other articles-we need to support people who already know how to make ventilators and masks, and stop hoarding masks and groceries.
“We should not try to make ventilators”-I agree with this from a pragmatic point of view, but I do not agree that we should leave the manufacturing of ventilators to those who already know how to make ventilators for the same practicality. It takes at least 90 days for industry to start producing ventilators, and even longer time to produce the required number of ventilators. We don’t have so much time.
So, what can we do? We can start by creating a “ventilator performance specification” that records what this equipment should do, rather than specifying the details of how the equipment should do it. The file types I’m referring to are common in field software systems as well as FDA and DoD systems.
In the software industry, there is something called “verification and confirmation”, which can be understood as the difference between these two questions: 1) Are we making the right product? (Our design will meet customer requirements) 2) Are the products we manufactured correct? (Our products conform to our design)
Systems such as undersupply of ventilators have to meet a series of overlapping requirements from many often conflicting stakeholders. In order to avoid liability, hospital lawyers tend to take the position of “letting the patient die rather than using an uncertified device”. However, capable medical technicians are confident that the uncertified equipment they are familiar with can save patients on demand. If they can provide a way to reduce responsibility, they are usually willing to adapt to special circumstances. The success of any such device depends on providing a method that allows lawyers, hospital administrators and other personnel to “dilute” by providing policy guidelines to suit special circumstances, because the method has the technical capabilities of the relevant system.
Performance specifications can be used as a guide, ranging from small businesses with equivalent tools to traditional medical technology companies (such as Medtronics) and the Makers posted here. It details the relevant stakeholders (doctors, medical technology, hospital administrators, hospital lawyers, etc.) and outlines the various concerns of each participant to provide a high-level understanding of the environment in which the system needs to adapt. Such a document specifies requirements in terms of interfaces, so that each designer can flexibly meet the requirements, and also details the way to test and create any equipment to ensure that these requirements are met.
Performance specifications are usually the content provided by DOD or FDA to contractors who want to bid for the design and manufacture of equipment and can meet customer needs. Each contractor then provides detailed design specifications that show which components are connected in which way to make work equipment.
I believe we should concentrate our collective efforts in this area in order to provide “power” for these other technological efforts. Considering the number of interested parties, I also believe that compared to those large, inflexible manufacturing facilities that try to meet strict standards, suitable equipment can be deployed in a very short time. In the healthcare industry, such strict The standard may allow many special situations.
“However, a competent medical technician is convinced that the uncertified equipment he is familiar with can rescue patients as required, so he is usually willing to adapt to special circumstances.”
It would be meaningless for competitors to use 30,000 household ventilators with undertrained personnel-ventilation is a very skilled art-often requiring sedation and intubation. You can’t let people read content out of the box, and you can’t turn them into ventilation experts.
Confidential medical device certification requires product design in a quality-managed development environment. This is what makes hospitals and operators full of confidence. Would you allow someone to perform non-degree surgery on you? Or do you want to see the certificate on the wall when you visit a specialist?
Family do you think it will take you to be familiar with a new device, the accessories that come with it, its impact on the health of patients, and the consequences of misunderstanding it? This means you have killed someone? If the operation of each device is quickly tracked through calibration and certification, will the operation of each device be different? Or is the error in the software because it was designed by someone without breathing expertise and has not been rigorously tested?
Now, I’m not saying that if I were to save lives, I wouldn’t use plastic bags and windshield wiper motors to do something-but it’s not the same as trying to save a million lives-especially when you don’t have a million The HCW takes care of them.
The biggest obstacle to BIG is to avoid producing aerosolized, virus-filled exhaled breath-it will infect medical staff and emergency care will collapse-and increase the number of deaths.
The best way is to provide a supply chain of ventilators and access to the market for people who know what they are doing. They have increased their production to 100% and are redesigning their use to meet demand.

“About building equipment in a quality management environment”, I’m not sure how many performance specifications or test specifications you actually wrote. I guess not a lot.
1) “Standard” procedures used in systems such as medical equipment and aircraft. While adopting the “Go / No-Go” minimalist test procedure to support mass production, it also focuses on the quality control of the manufacturing process. (If all the parts on the airplane are imperfect, it will not be able to fly.) For those systems that will never function properly under degraded conditions, this process is the default setting.
2) Test-oriented product development, which does not emphasize manufacturing quality so much, but emphasizes rigorous testing to prove its actual reliability within specific tolerances rather than theoretical reliability.
Have you ever experienced that you can customize testing and self-diagnostic software to ensure any equipment, but whether its manufacturer’s function is above the specified reliability level or before it is used in the field, it can be guaranteed?
1) Control the environment of manufacturing equipment, and hope that the HELL equipment is not damaged during transport to the hospital or installation? 2) Through an embedded test, the test can ensure a reliability level slightly higher than the on-site acceptable reliability level. Once connected and ready for use, the risk involved in No. 1 is avoided?
I am the founder and CEO of a company that designs, develops and commercializes medical devices. I spent more than 40 years developing medical equipment, including Class III active implants, such as:-pacemaker-implantable defibrillator-intensive care breathing monitor-insulin pump-heart monitor-pacing The device testing system is always in the development environment of quality management in compliance with IS0-113485 and other dozens of medical equipment and software standards.
Yes, I am part of the “Performance Specifications and Test Specifications” that I wrote and worked on. Yes-I understand software self-testing-I forgot to mention Im, he is a computer scientist with more than 40 years of experience in the field-including software for implantable devices and the devices used to program and test them.
I think you have never developed a medical device, otherwise, in addition to the actual product, you will also understand the standards that control the design process and risk identification. You cannot identify all risks by testing manufacturing processes or products, and software cannot test all risks. How does the software test the mechanical reliability of the ventilator circuit-or whether the air exhaled by the patient contains aerosolized virus-can infect medical staff?
Some followers of these threads have fallen into the trap of specification management-”I can design a better device than you.”
Your estimate of the “minimum 90 days” for the industry to start using ventilators is completely wrong. People who know what they are doing have passed all the appropriate certifications, the capacity in the quality management environment has tripled, and thousands of devices have been shipped in recent weeks.
This is just one of them…Only in the United States + Europe, at least dozens of other countries are doing this. 19 / default.aspx
So – answer your question “Tell me; which metric can provide higher confidence in reliability?”
Now you can see emergency exemptions for these standards here…
But these changes apply to the modification of equipment that has been designed and certified by “people who know what they are doing”** and modified for this purpose using the same quality management process.
Hackers will never be able to keep up with the pace of existing manufacturers, which have sufficient resources, design, facilities, processes, well-trained employees, supply chain and distribution network, can be based on appropriate performance, reliability and confidence-can Traceability and support network.
It is a personal protective equipment for front-line medical staff, and it has enough medical workers. We face the risk of not having enough frontline HCW to deploy and manage the number of machines already delivered. If the machine is hacked and deployed poorly, it runs the risk of infecting medical staff, who then become patients, causing a destructive cycle on the front lines, leading to an increase in deaths.
All of us can control the spread of diseases by modifying our behaviors, which will bring greater changes-focus on hygiene, safe evacuation, stop hoarding, take care of those in need, and provide input for manufacturers facing shortages ( Such as PPE) to provide supply chain support.
“Be familiar with how long you think it will take to become familiar with a new device, the accessories that come with it, and its impact on the health of patients”
Yes, because you are dealing with proprietary rather than open performance specifications, this is the focus of my entire article. All proprietary suppliers only need to formulate design specifications and individual test specifications that meet FDA requirements. If the FDA or DOD as a customer wants to deploy the system, they will create a performance specification internally and use it to execute the proposal request. The government will use its own performance specifications to promote the development of any test specifications and then appraise the new system.
Have you used Marlin on a 3D printer? The interesting thing is that no matter what type of printer you use, no matter what hardware you use, you can use the same menu and configuration to open the same firmware.
e… sounds like a method that might help standardize the interfaces of a bunch of machines that use different hardware but are designed to perform the same function.
Why must pure oxygen be used? Why is ordinary air not good enough? Is this a question of liability for impurities in the air?
Why don’t we need to breathe moist air when we breathe without drying the mucous membranes? Is air humidification the only way to prevent mucous membranes from drying out? This is the initial stage of an open source project. What is your opinion?
Isn’t the negative pressure human body case using oxygen therapy the more likely “open source” option? Not all cases require intubation. In fact, some studies have shown better prognosis and lung recovery.
In most cases, can a biphasic chest ventilator help them? A person might make a wooden pressurized chamber, and then use a piston to pump air in a pvc pipe powered by a vertical mixer (also known as KitchenAid), and the accessory connection port to run a crank with adjustable stroke?
Why can’t we modify the heating/compressed air emissions of the jet airliner like the Boeing 737… Modify the air volume as needed, remove all seat installation beds, and use the aircraft as an ICU ventilator… anesthesia like you The teacher can request the required psi and temperature information…This is’although it is beautiful, but in theory it can meet the needs of time, space, safety, and provide ventilation as needed… Dutch
To be honest, I’m not sure if this suggestion is serious…but the word “safe” should be emphasized.
Unless the signed “Dutch” is an aphorism used to express suspicion-such as “If feasible, I am Dutch”.
In the UK, they use open source to make simple respirators. The mechanical equipment is located inside the plexiglass box. They push air by changing the pressure in the box, thereby compressing the mechanical equipment. They designed electronic equipment to run it. I know that you can set up a programmable device that is available at any time to run it. These can be completed in a few days. It’s simple, but they are effective.
I don’t see the significance of using a compressed air supply to compress Ambu bags to produce compressed air. The Ambu bag is designed to be used by well-trained professionals, who can adjust the compression depth and time according to the needs of the patient when compressed air is not available.
If you already have compressed air, you can use a regulating valve (such as a regulating valve in a diving tank) to more easily achieve any advantages of bag restriction pressure and volume-no electricity is needed, and it’s already available.
If there is no controller and feedback loop to meet the needs of patients, it cannot help clinically. It will never be adopted in clinics. It cannot be expanded to meet needs.
“True” ventilator manufacturers are scaling up on a large scale and will bring “certified” products to the market before the hacked solution is launched. They have certified design, quality control, proven supply chain, mass production capabilities, and distribution and support networks.
An example
If it is not properly connected to the patient, generating airflow will not solve the problem. Where will these items provide protection for the lines and masks? How will they manage the virus-laden aerosols that may infect medical staff and turn them into patients, leading to the collapse of first-line clinical care, thereby increasing the number of deaths?
In any case, whether to use an aquarium air pump, 3D printed flow regulator, its function is similar to a pressure valve to achieve the correct pressure range. I am not alone, but I am trying to calculate the mathematical formula of PEEP to create a mechanically movable rotary flow restrictor that is connected to the air pump through a pipe. When the incoming air is reached, this will close the air flow, allowing the air to be released. These regulators can be made suitable or switched off. Sorry, my level of education in respiratory therapy is not high.
Hi, can we use our homemade cpap machine in mild covid19? is that useful? If not, what are the criteria to make it work?
What kind of paint is this kind of project on Facebook? The only “people” still on Facebook are Russian trolls/disinformation bots and stupid people. Good luck and get useful technical input there!
I said, hang a small air pump similar to a blood pressure monitor on a self-made oxygen generator, as described above: hydrogen peroxide and potatoes in a plastic bottle. ->
The flow of those small pumps is very low. What you need is similar to the blower used in CPAP machines. Those can be 3D printed-I have done it. A $10 model airplane can be used to provide rotation with a brushless DC motor, and the price of the drive is approximately $10-15. You may be able to get rid of the trouble of BLDC motor harvested from old hard drives. See:
Good link for BLDC motors. I agree that this is a very interesting solution, but I do think that PLA on the material is not the right way to move forward. I recommend using nylon PA12 or PP or even aluminum to increase the strength of the parts.
Actually, this will not work well. You need more volume and more oxygen. Check out this: Summary: Commercial units deliver 21-100% at a rate of 50-100 liters/min O2. Even if you use a strong solution of peroxide (10%), you need a large amount in just one day. The best way to generate oxygen is pressure swing adsorption, then you only need a slightly larger pump, some valves and two zeolite columns.
Breathing can also be dangerous. Stainless steel may undergo chemical reactions.

It is unclear whether the virus can survive long-term outside of aerosol droplets. Moreover, when a certain degree of heat increase makes it inactive and can recover in a more suitable environment, the What can survive the virus is unclear. Thorough heating for a given air input is a bit like a beaten egg, because inadequate mixing may occur and you have not fully “cooked” some of it. Of course, you can pass the air through the heat gun and let it out at a temperature of 200°C, but at a lower temperature, what is the thing around the edge, that is, the entrained air or the thing that leaks directly without being heated . In any case, although you may be able to do it, it seems that a lot of effort will be invested to truly ensure that you can do it.
If so, we only need to worry about droplets. The advice so far is that they can only reach about 2 meters before falling. Then, we can use the high-capacity system recommended by FEMA in some of their home nuclear bunker building materials and use the air duct with multiple baffles. This is to make the air path jagged and throw away particles at turns. We can quickly manufacture these from steel plates, and then treat/plate with copper sulfate solution so that the collected viruses will not rot there. Other measures can also be used, such as strong ultraviolet radiation and heating.
We need a list of expenses like buildings. (Maybe an online mind mapping tool that can be accessed by the group)
Technology (lift air/minute, pressure output-in and out, changes in heart rate and breathing, input and output of Uv and ultrasonic decontamination, O2 blocking wave frequency for external dissolution analysis, measurement of O2, CO2, NO2, humidity, temperature, and The exact temperature of IR heating to generate sterile humidity, essential oil additives
Tools used to make harnass trachea, air compressor, air pump, aquarium UV lamp, IR lamp, ultrasonic source with wave blocking and efficiency adjustment electrolyte
The design of any device needs to check the electrical requirements of each device. The electrical system of the hospital is not suitable for circuit overload. What we don’t want to happen is to plug in too many electronic devices and cause power outages due to circuit overload! This is worse than not having enough ventilators.
In my opinion, the purpose of this is to prevent people from worrying about death rather than certification.
Outside the developed countries where we should have more or less enough equipment and medicines (if we look at Italy, we don’t have one, but this is another story), but please consider the third world, if this virus spreads to Africa, Refugees in Bangladesh and Syria, they are all messed up, and they will bear any responsibility when they roll over and die. Think of the poor in poverty-stricken areas, because fellow human beings have a moral responsibility to help them survive.
I am a novice DIY volunteer in North Africa. If any of you can provide a very simple set of instructions and parts list, I will personally equip the local nurse with some emergency ventilators. They were totally unprepared, and they were frustrated that the documents had been turned away by the gentle temperature of the front door. I am glad you are all in a place where you can still go to the clinic or hospital. If it helps the discussion, I can use an old philips CPAP machine in an emergency. I think everyone will be infected when they seriously consider using this thing, and transmission will no longer be a problem. This diy wooden iron lung saved many lives during the polio epidemic in the 50s in third world countries
I work in a hospital in the UK. We use a numeric keypad/access control system extensively. I designed a key/keychain type thing that can be 3D printed and then used to open the keyboard door without touching the keyboard or handle.
Wow, well done. Actually, I can’t believe the hospital is using the keyboard for input. Unsafe (or auditable, etc.), and there is an obvious risk of infection.
Nothing is really safe, and a properly cleaned keyboard (everything should be in the hospital) is safe enough (though obviously not ideal). But what keyboard is really practical-can tell anyone who enters the field. If you buy an ID card with a magnetic stripe, you need a team of “technical” personnel. As the position of the medical staff changes or everyone in the staff can enter any door (regardless of whether it is acceptable or not), continue to verify, authorize and cancel Authorization)…If you only need the correct card or clone, it will cause inconvenience and it will no longer be safe.
We have ID cards of nearly 2k employees. Four employees in the IT department manage all other tasks on the network. There are also independent teams for hardware and websites. The problem is, when you introduce a solution and it takes a week or two to generate business cards for thousands or more people, but once it is established and your staff rotation is not large, the departure of new and old people Become controllable.
As Foldi-One said…they are really convenient, they are mainly used in less secure areas…that is, our IT offices (lol), cleaners and non-hazardous goods storage areas and similar areas. Magnetic brushes and good old-fashioned keys are also widely used.
I just arrived at the manor and they gave me an old handle/knob, so I can do a test at home without having to continue the test :)
Yes, I am making some slim boat hook section dust collectors to open all sliding doors to avoid contamination. I always feel frustrated that after washing my hands, I have to pull the door handle to exit the canteen or toilet, and touch all the germs left by non-handwashers…finish it
um, yes. . . This has been my darling for many years. When leaving a public toilet, you must hold/pull the door handle. I’ve always wondered why they arranged it like this, thinking it’s better to hold/pull the handle, and then push the door open with your feet when you go out (avoid touching the dirty handle with clean hands). Then someone explained to me how they handled it, so if someone collapses in the toilet or needs help, they might kick the door in. I think this makes sense: (
In fact, almost all bathroom doors have an easy-to-unlock mechanism. Usually, it can be unlocked only with a screwdriver or something like a screwdriver. If you are worried that someone has collapsed, you may not want to kick the door into their head. No, the bathroom and most other doors open inwards, so when you open the door, you won’t hit the door against people walking down the hall.
No, this is not all the toilet doors I have seen in the past 20 years (during commuting, we usually only have metal hooks or latches, and in the 90s, we did not have money to renovate places, so old buildings have old solutions) Yes Lockable lock. Objects opened from the outside with a coin or any other screwdriver.
My epidemiology teacher once said: Once you have completed your degree in microbiology, you are either the kind of person who opens the door with a handkerchief, or the kind of person who eats on the floor, if I am doing my job Right, you go buy a handkerchief. I almost always wear a sweater, mainly because I can open a door with my sleeve. Turn on/off lights, move chairs, etc. I walked for the last four days without touching any objects that anyone else outside my house had touched.
Hi, I am a person who knows nothing about MD. Do you think that some poor countries can use fish tank oxygen motors to make VENTILATORs?
Well, if it is necessary to build a house, would the old “wood lung” method be more preferable?
The second page of the site is a bit messy, another copy
Maybe there is a way to update the design. For example, diesel iron fuel tanks have the same or larger size as iron lungs. There are still quite a few oil tankers around that have failed due to rust or excessive vacuum. These use iron maintenance doors with rubber pressure seals. Remove the door and door frame assembly and weld it to the fuel tank.
How to use the subwoofer as a speaker and pump motor. You will need a lot of drivers, and if you don’t remove at least not as much air as your lungs, you can actually make the situation worse, but on the bright side, it is very easy to control. At least the Post COVID19 party will not lack DIY subwoofers.
This sounds like a technique used in certain respiratory diseases, where there is a vibrating breastplate around the chest. Not sure if fast and shallow breathing will help a lot. The iron lung approach itself is slightly insufficient, but combined with a fixed oxygen tent may be effective for some patients. The real advantage is that it is non-invasive for DIY. I tend to think that early support for such devices may prevent the need for better products in the future, but I am not a Doc.
Therefore, it is uncertain whether the speed of these submarines can be driven normally. I can see how many people can provide enough air flow, but unless they move at a few hertz, they will not be able to exert any pressure. Unless you consider fast valves, they will generate pressure when operating at the lowest typical frequency within a few seconds.
They can travel as slowly as you want, vibration can be an additional feature, and the low end of the response is limited by travel, which is why you need a lot of drivers. A pure guess is a 12 x 12 inch drive. If the driving voltage is low and the movement is slow, they can basically be driven from a DC power supply. Switch the polarity to change the drive direction.
My idea is too Robert, and I realize that not everyone can get everything everywhere, but tryna replaces a $100 general-purpose motor with a large bass cone worth a few hundred dollars seems to be nothing to think about.
@Murray’s idea of ​​using this speaker diagram is very clever. To increase the amount of air, all you need to do is increase the size of the diaphragm you actually do. The mechanical “engine” of the speaker is the voice coil. I can imagine installing a large piece of foam on/in place on the existing woofer diaphragm and using a “plug valve and hole cut”. You can then use any existing amplifier to place the speakers under the low-hertz “song”.
There is a device with four linear actuators that works like this: the diaphragm is extended above the breastplate. I can’t find the link for this device…
Everything in the medical field brings great responsibilities. Fault detection and alarms are absolutely necessary.
Be careful not to ignore the main points of this thread. The goal is not to produce medical-grade equipment that can do everything, but to provide choices for people who have no other choice.
Although corrosion of components may become a problem, it can be safely controlled by using a salt solution. Most of the salt should be left behind. The salt ingested is safe and may even be beneficial to any viruses present in the throat.
If the numbers are correct, then most countries will use ventilators, and 5% of the people who are infected will die from it. We are talking about millions of deaths. Therefore, I think that DIY should be acceptable here.
Considering that most of the people who died here in the United States are in nursing homes, you will not extend your life.
It’s a shame to say, but there may be a percentage of people who are in “borrowed time” because it is, who even only more than ten years ago at this age have passed due to flu or pneumonia. Now, we vaccinate these people for a longer period of time, and they live longer for several years, but this has not completely eliminated their vulnerability to viral diseases. So it’s a bit like “final destination” garbage, and this virus is almost the same as we defeated (or at least inactivated) the killer of the elderly.
Not only that. Young people* are critically ill. They are breathing support. But they survived.
Triage is happening, and some older people or people with comorbidities are dying without putting them in the intensive care unit.
If you (perhaps correct) designate your intensive care bed as the person most likely to survive, then you cannot use the death rate of neglected people to prove this.
There are 50,000 to 10,000 intensive care beds in the UK, depending on your calculation method (excluding private, coronary artery treatment and kidney beds). Most are in London.
The latest statistics are that 6% need intensive care (I will take 14% seriously). Therefore, if only 2% of the 8 million residents of London are infected and 6% need intensive care, the average stay is 5-10 days…
Yes, there is nothing. Like anticancer drugs, they would rather let you die from a slow, painful death than try promising new drugs, but they have not been tested. I am very happy that the government is looking for me.
Testing means using it. In this case, there is no shortage of volunteers. The question is how much risk margin can you expand in accelerated testing, while still having enough chances to make the results at least more negative than positive.
You seem to forget that we are trying to reach a constantly changing goal. There is no reason to apply the “manufacturer methodology” to other aspects of design, such as requirements gathering and phased certification. Talk to medical liability lawyers and hospital administrators to determine what types of exemptions, exemptions, and device self-diagnosis can be implemented in this situation.
The rigidity and rigidity of the traditional design method adopted by the manufacturer assumes that the basic requirements are static. They are not in the manufacturer’s domain.
I want to know if the generals planning a D-day invasion looked at each other and said, “There is no mechanism that allows us to cross the barrier and cross that beach.”
A promising paper published in 2015 focused on the use of ultraviolet sterilization on N95 masks with the goal of repeated use. It looks promising. My local makerspace has a bio-shield with a built-in UVGI lamp, and some baby bottle sterilizers that we are currently testing on the N95.
-Separate N95 into various components (strap, valve, mask, etc.)-Cut each part into medallions, strips, fragments, etc.-Put the fragments under UVGI-Check the material under the microscope-Repeat until the material breaks.
A recent Chinese paper suggested that it should last for 30 minutes at 70 degrees Celsius, and it is recommended not to use ultraviolet light
The weather is clear today, and my thoughts turned to natural ultraviolet radiation. However, it is not good to hang things on windows because decent glass will block most UVB. In addition, if you are closer to sea level, you will not get much from the atmosphere anyway. But, as a last resort, there is no other way… stick the saran paper (plastic wrap) on the cookie jar, and then leave the mask there all day, the sun may work. However, as pde pointed out in the Chinese link below, the penetration and sterilization depth of any ultraviolet source cannot be guaranteed. Therefore, only the surface is clean. For personal use of gloves or other items, it may be acceptable. So why do you want Saran to wrap your body? Well, according to random network results, the classic non-recyclable Saran wrapper can spread 80% to 95% of the UVB… Why cover it? Well, if you are okay with flies and can leave poop tracks or birds crawling on them, you don’t need to. Why cover the cookie jar? (Biscuit tin, etc.)… You want to turn it into a small solar oven and expose it to ultraviolet light, so you should bake it at a low degree and irradiate it. Use a better method, or use fresh gloves/masks (if available).
It can be done, but a typical shiny metal finish will reflect any ultraviolet light at any angle and may cause it to shine behind it from the side and below the first layer of fibers.
You can use a “flame grating” to separate UV B and/or UV A, which is a sawtooth profile on metal. The spacing of the sawtooth waves determines the (slightly wider) ultraviolet wavelength that diffracts (away from the regular reflection angle). Look for “flaming raster” in Google Books to find books containing formulas.
I remember the Wikipedia page saying that the atmosphere prevented UV C from reaching the ground, but (some) UV B and UV A did reach the ground.
A 3D printing blower that can move enough air quietly is not difficult. I copied the blower from the CPAP machine and used the HDD motor to drive it, and got a lot of quiet airflow, but the power of the HDD motor may be a bit insufficient. BLDC aircraft motors, which cost about $10, can be used and driven by pilots for $15.
You must carefully monitor and limit the pressure, because too high pressure can cause the lung to rupture. This is why CPAP machines are considered medical devices-if installed incorrectly, they can cause serious damage.
Need to find motors for at least continuous duty cycles, model airplanes, drones and RC car motors, which is actually not the case.
This may mean that the size and weight of the motor is twice as efficient as attracting hackers.
The printable unit I modeled for the CPAP blower has a 24W motor. The motor is placed inside the blower, and the constantly moving air cools it to keep the motor cool. I suspect that if you use an airplane motor model of around 50W and run it below the rated current inside the blower, it can run almost forever without problems.
Their heat capacity is not very large, they will definitely reach a stable temperature within a few minutes after use, and the continuous use time will be longer. The bearing will disappear over time, but it depends on the load and bearing quality, and is suitable for any type of motor.
The electric motor power of an unmanned aircraft is several hundred watts. Then, your lungs just exploded from the pressure. I think they will run for a long time at lower power.
Measuring air pressure can be challenging. Industrial/automotive pressure sensors are mostly used for higher pressures and are not sensitive enough for this application. However, building a vertical transparent water pipe will serve the purpose (communication container). To measure the water height, a simple UV led + receiver will tell the system “this pressure (water height) has been reached”. Add 2 or 3 led + sensors, and you can effectively control pressure with less than $10 materials. Strive for 30cm of water. The working pressure of ordinary CPAP equipment is 6 to 15 cm water pressure.
Use counterweighted baffle relief valves, balloons or the like to limit the absolute maximum pressure applied to the tubing leading to the patient. In any case, you don’t seem to be able to seal the patient’s airway well because you are providing an oxygen-rich auxiliary air stream to the respiratory tract to help all patients except the comatose breathe normally.
My oven uses a very low pressure (or vacuum) switch. Amazon (cheap?) has HVAC pressure switches. The water column I use ranges from 0.1 inches of water column to 10 inches high.
I think the water depth sensor used in the washing machine may work, and there is an old backup device, the Pirani pressure gauge. That is just a heating wire. The air pressure cools the wire through convection, which causes its resistance to change, and its resistance is a measure of pressure.
Why does HAD even publish such information? Medical equipment does not belong to HAD. Time wasting because no one can hack, modify or create medical equipment… “Nobody” means most of us browse this website (including myself).
Of course, it is best to leave medical devices to experts, but if they cannot be found or can’t be bought, and all other devices fail, why not? I work in a sheep farm and ran into problems during the lambing season. After consulting the veterinarian, they recommended euthanasia to resolve complaints that other farmers routinely resolve. I don’t know what went wrong, but it seems to be systemic.
No, just a guy who is thinking about it. First, most of you have zero medical experience and zero medical instrument experience. You don’t even know when to use or not to use such devices.
Do you think the hospital or clinic will allow you to use a home brewing ventilator? It must not work. They will call the police and may sue you.
However, after the hospital says, “We don’t have more space, and all ventilators are reserved for the people most likely to recover”, will they allow you to put your own ventilators on Grandpa? That has already happened in Italy.
Hmm…Acquiring knowledge and “acquiring clues” are the basic components of Hacking. Duh. In this particular thread, the contempt of the feet is extremely ignorant and selfish. When/if the open source community develops a solution that can be used as an (albeit temporary) emergency remedy to help alleviate suffering or even death, you will be surprised when your child lies there (because there is no ” Official/offender”/certified” device), please be sure to ask the hacker to “take these things away from my kids!” “.Jesus.
Lol, because all the people on hackaday do nothing but browse the web. Many readers are people who build this kind of equipment, and we may not be talking about Western hospitals here.
Well, no one has ever invaded an insulin pump. No medical device has serious design flaws. I am with you, including myself.
I just said that medical devices are not a good topic for HAD (good day). Anyone can do anything they want in private at home, but the Home Affairs Department should not be open to this, especially for inexperienced tinkers. If FU is against me, then +1…I hit someone on the nerves.
Find someone who has never experienced “do it yourself or you will suffer.” We hope that nothing will change for you in the next few months.
As a medical professional who specializes in implementing, maintaining and maintaining mechanical ventilation for patients, after reading many responses to this HAD “project”, I must agree with Max S.’s comments 1000%.
Totally agree (retired product designer) this is not a hacker, be smart-copy what has been designed and tested as soon as possible. If you want to help reach the factory, distribute the plan to each manufacturer and supplier. Let the legal staff find out who owes money later
The founder/CEO of FLEDGE Innovation Labs medical device incubator has more than 40 years of experience in developing/commercializing medical devices =====
We can’t solve this problem with garden hoses and vacuum cleaners or exhaled air through a bucket of boiling water.
I am publishing all the news, but if you can do engineering design, please leave me a message,
Hi I don’t think you understand this. The purpose is not to replace or compete with commercial ventilators. The goal here is to extensively construct a survival device that can be mass-produced at low cost and easily repaired to cope with war times like this. Can this device kill people? Yes. However, if this device is not created, more people will die (please check the location of the hospital personnel who are invading the conventional ventilator to accommodate 4 people).
Likewise, it does not have to be fancy. Perhaps the iron lungs used in the 1950s are low-tech and easy to repair, which can save thousands of lives.
In Italy, now-today-more than 400 people have been hospitalized for ED due to breathing difficulties with oxygen saturation below 90%. This rate doubles every 3-4 days.
*Never* have enough ventilators to help everyone. There will never be enough iron lungs to help a small part of these people. *Never* There will be enough time to build a ventilator solution and deploy it, and not enough people to implement or manage it.
When I wrote this reply, a hundred people were killed because their O2 saturation collapsed.
Ventilation is an invasive and resource-intensive solution. It is not only a ventilator, but also requires skilled personnel to manage equipment and patients. This is much bigger than blowing.
The hack moved to a technology-driven discussion that solved a wrong problem… Take a look at the original abstract, which describes a non-invasive high-flow nasal catheter, not a ventilator.
We need some simple and cheap products ($50) that can increase production by the order of magnitude within a few days or weeks.
Trying to piece together the bicycle tire and the ventilation on the ventilation belt is not the solution-it will never be able to support or scale to meet demand.
And – it will leak virus-laden aerosols that infect other patients and medical staff – which means that the balance will be shifted from nursing staff to patients – which will disrupt the medical system and accelerate death.
I agree with Gary Jones, which is why I made this wooden iron lung and prepared it for use in Brazil: /2up
Because in Australia, it is estimated that we will reduce about 2,000 ventilators. This thread is not “commercial vs self-made” thread is “self-made vs no intervention”
The motors/drives overheat the drone’s motors, is this really a bit crazy? The homemade fan just got a nice compressor from the machine market to control the airflow. Hey, do you have enough air for hundreds of people?
Take a large bag of debris that contains about 4 cubic feet of “decent compressor” that can fit for a minute without industrial wiring. Now I can only breathe once per minute, is that enough?
For all opponents, when the hospital is overwhelmed or in a third world country, no one will single-handedly talk about regulatory issues. This applies not only to cities where we have modern infrastructure and basic services readily available.
Well, you don’t want to do more harm than harm. If you are using dirty equipment, you may end up with more deaths than not using any equipment. Without proper testing, it is difficult to know if it does more harm than good. You don’t want to just use it, but after killing a bunch of people you find that it is worse.
Please, please, please-use your ingenuity to increase the intake of the public’s hygiene process. The goal of the medical profession is to reduce the infection rate so that the air supply to the ventilator is not overloaded, so the classification does not need to determine who gets the limited resources. Medicine has nothing to do with glory or clickbait; but it is about reducing morbidity and mortality. I repeat, figure out how to reduce the rate. You will become the greater hero of the People’s Liberation Army who doesn’t know if you saved their lives. And you don’t need MD to perform this operation.
We must create, invent or implement many simple things to slow the spread of the virus.
Thank you Dr. Clint-there are hundreds of HAD posts here, and after a week of posts, there is still no drawing, specification, process sheet for building anything, let alone a ventilator. This proves why our education system has caused us to fail badly. Does anyone here have an engineering degree, a medical degree, and any high-volume manufacturing experience? ? ? What??? anyone? ? ? ..,
Hi, I am looking for a team that will not waste time. I have a design plan and have been evaluated by medical experts. I need an engineer and at least 1 medical doctor. I prefer a military background or trauma. anesthesia. There is a lot of rubbish on the site, but I am moving forward, if you are interested, please email me.
Try this website, they are sometimes well-resourced. They serve military customers in comedy diving applications. They don’t have the exact equipment, and maybe they have no vision, but they can design or redesign existing things. My husband used to work for them. They may be closed due to lockout, so try to find some personal contacts on the site. Their parent company is Divex of Ireland, headquartered in Cape Town.
I have a degree in mechanical engineering, can use rapid prototyping equipment, and have experience leading small development teams…Of course, this is unprecedented before pursuing such an influential and time-sensitive goal. I also have engineers who are interested in doing more.
I agree with your helplessness, but I won’t blame anyone’s education. In general, I would say that it is difficult to organize, plan and execute and complete development projects.
Problem solvers need boundaries to open up our creativity and need to solve specific problems. I have read several articles, mainly asking about the working principle of the ventilator and what the target requirements of the hackaday version are. I would love to see that this article/post has been updated with these points.
A comment on an opponent. Medical-grade equipment must be used for many years and may have countless functions to make it a more useful and valuable product. Being hacked together will be impossible to compare. On the contrary, cheap ventilators that can safely provide proper oxygen mix/pressure within two months can change our world.
If you are thinking of a hospital, I am thinking of a conventional industrial compressor and a bunch of PVC pipes. Of course, this will require some additional plumbing and security, but this is much easier on a large scale. Therefore, if you are serious about this, please skip the common doubts and put together some doctors who know you need and engineers with experience in industrial equipment.
You cannot use conventional piston-based air compressors due to the problem of air cushion oil droplets. You can use a hardware storage compressor based on the [cleaned] graph, but this method is not very common. I am very satisfied with your PVC plumbing idea, this part is very good :)
Has anyone considered using a Midi clock (music device or music software) to adjust the frequency of air distribution?
I am interested in helping! I can design all the electronic equipment needed for this project. If you are interested, please send me an email to, we can talk more.
The reason the flu is more deadly than this is that more people are infected with the flu. According to the current spread of covid-19, this will no longer be the case in about 30-45 days from now. At that time, there were more people who had or had had covid-19 than people who had a cold, and people who had covid-19 About people with flu. The mortality rate is 10 to 40 times. In terms of the number of people killed worldwide, this may not be as bad as in 1918, but if it ends up killing more people, I wouldn’t be surprised, just because there are so many people. I have seen a lot of estimates and used my own estimates, and it actually depends a lot on the data set you use, but most of us have come up with some numbers that indicate that 50% of the dates in the world are A certain date is between April 20th and May 15th.
To design, we need technical details: 1. Maximum flow 6lpm 2. Maximum allowable pressure? ? ? 3. The required humidity level? ? ? 4. Oxygen mixing range? ? ?
This is what I want to know. I have a working prototype made of a large-capacity hand pump. The hand pump is usually used for inflatable mattresses and inflatable rafts. It is driven by a simple “piston” (a spinning wheel with a rotatable elbow, such as a steam engine). A geared DC motor from a water-cooled drill bit.
Currently, I am trying to add a method of humidifying the air and a method of setting the pressure range/breathing rate.
Nasal catheter 1 is used. 20-60 liters per minute 4. 21-100% FiO2. 21% is the oxygen concentration in the ambient air
For CPAP/BIPAP2. I recommend a maximum pressure of 40mmHg. 30mmHg is the actual limit value for safe ventilation, but sometimes we need to ventilate at a higher pressure from 4.21% to 100%, please see above
These variables are machine- and patient-specific based on anatomy, physiology and pathology. Therefore, it takes years for the machine to learn how to use it correctly and safely.
For everyone who reviews medical certification. Such as ISO13485 and 21CFR820 (QMS), 93/42/EEC (MDD), 90/385/EE (IVD), ISO14971 (risk management), IEC60601-1 (general safety), IEC60601-1-2 (EMC), etc. Things); not to mention the numerous other standards and regulations for specific types and categories of equipment.
I have participated in some projects (including ventilators) in which product certification and preliminary audits accounted for more than half of the development cost. Then comes the cost of liability insurance, regular audits, and continuous updates of regulations and standards.
These costs are borne by the same consumers who require FDA and medical device designers to respond quickly and have a high level of goddess-like fault protection performance.
Then start, 25 days a day and 8 days a week to execute the crash procedure to speed up compliance with all chaotic situations. At the same time, you will be ready to set off in only 6 months…
My personal favorite is ISO-60601-1-4. I am also engaged in the research of medical devices. I don’t want everyone’s enthusiasm and desire to help get twice the result with half the effort, but unless you are involved, you really don’t know what it takes to design, test, manufacture, market and distribute medical equipment. The “label” requirement alone brought me ulcers. Open source design may have a certain amount of space (open design is okay, as long as it follows the same standards and you can verify its provenance 100%), but I just don’t see anyone making legal products in their garages or manufacturing In the business space. Is this ISO-9000 difficult? Try 13485!
When the applicable ISO specifications must be complied with on the equipment in formal use, in this case, the demand may become so great that there is no time to go through all these cycles and any good design can do it.
I can assure you that if you have no choice and need to choose between devices that are available and work but are not ISO compliant, you may still seize the opportunity.
But it does not depend on you. This will set a terrible precedent. This is not allowed under any circumstances. I am not trying to lose my life, but medical equipment must be 100% foolproof. For this, it may take ten years of testing. Why are you asking? A word. Believe. Suppose you design a machine and do a lot. At first it worked, but then it failed in the same way for everyone. It kills all these people until the last one. You thought it was a virus, but later found out it was a machine. The news spread. Now, the trust is broken. People no longer trust hospitals and avoid them. Conspiracy to fly. They refused to be vaccinated. Trust is gone. Just because of insufficient trust in hospitals and doctors, more people will die. This is why the standard is set so high. They must be. Without trust, modern medicine will fail. The best way is to educate people. I saw at least 20,000 in the bar today. People are everywhere. If someone provided them with correct information about the cause, all these people could have been at home. No one does. No one is responsible. The emergency broadcast system should have taken over. All stations should broadcast the same content on every station. If there is a nuclear explosion, we will do it. During 9/11, we closed all programs. In contrast, it can be said to be a small disaster.
How to deal with precedents, or treat itself as a “disease” with some unorthodox sociological/psychological thinking, and modify/treat it in some way?
“… But medical equipment must be 100% foolproof.” Respect, this is simple ignorance. No device is “100% reliable”. This is about simple reliability indicators and confidence. This is not magic, nor does it require 10 years of medical education. Medical equipment reliability is a function of highly accelerated life testing. If you provide an open performance specification that details the tolerances and test thresholds that the machine needs to meet, you will be surprised because design engineers and manufacturers will complete production in record time.
I am not qualified to tell you what is medically feasible, and you are not qualified to decide what is technically feasible. It’s much easier to say “it’s impossible” instead of admitting where your expertise ends and where other people’s expertise begins. You did not provide useful information and documentation requirements for such a device, but convinced you of your arrogance that PHD can design a product that meets a series of clear requirements. It is not. Only clear requirements and qualified engineers/technicians are needed.
You can’t use Walmart’s in-house designs and parts to make something and expect certification… The design process is at least as important as the quality of the final product.
In this case, whether life-saving equipment needs to be certified is another question.
The problem here is to know what you don’t know-this is a challenge for well-meaning people who have never done such a thing before.
If we need more ventilators, then we need to support people who already know how to make ventilators.

We need to support people who can build them, test them, bring them where they are needed, train people and provide support for them. And-make sure that there are enough PPE and sterilization lines to operate them-especially if the patient is intubating-so we do not introduce bacterial infections to already infected patients or produce virus-laden aerosols that can infect the virus To make things worse-caregivers-turn them into patients and cause the emergency health care system to collapse-which will increase mortality.
Although this idea may be attractive, it is not the same as modifying the CO2 scrubber in Apollo 13. A problem facing Apollo 13 is the need for a solution, supported by thousands of experts who solve a problem. And the delivery point is single and there is no risk. Kill people who are trying to help.
This is because in a *normal* situation, ideally, we want everything *as safe as possible*. If we do not have to make unnecessary risks, then we should not do it. However, these situations are not normal at all (the situation is exacerbated by the government’s total incompetence, slowness and collapse). Here, the relevant design criterion is “expectation is better than nothing (not worse)”.
fine. But a few months from now, when 5% of India’s 1.4 billion population needs ventilators, no one will know nothing about certification. What matters is efficacy.
I thought we were going to bring the “old school” PEEP/Super Spyglass with trash cans full of water. The length of the tube and the depth in the water regulate the pressure.
Of course, it is not technically a ventilator, but if you only need CPAP/PEEP, you can follow many methods in the old medical guidelines for DIY pt. concern.
If patients wearing masks actually take any measures to prevent airborne transmission, then I don’t know why CPAP should be excluded because the masks on those masks can be covered with ordinary masks.
But I agree that looking back will find that our simpler equipment is easier to review.
Currently, there are concerns that the use of NIV (such as BPAP) / HHHF (such as AirVo / Optiflow) in COVID-19 will lead to undesirable consequences.
Once we run out, assuming any hospital dares to use them, it may use open source *invasive* ventilators. However, I don’t know how we can verify and verify that the software and hardware meet the safety standards we expect…
This has nothing to do with technology, but with regulations and forgotten threats.
You accidentally ended the sentence. I will do this for you: “This is the threat of regulations and forgotten, because you killed all these people with that untested garbage.”
They are currently conducting drug tests on patients who died of covid-19. test. Becoming a doctor is about acquiring knowledge. Do you think that the average nurse, doctor, and health worker knows nothing about what is said here. They are also guessing. Panicked guesses. People are dying, you just need to stop being denied and devote your time to various solutions, otherwise your family/friends will also die.
Paramedic Flight Paramedic and A&P Instructor ACLS Instructor EMS System Leader Fire & Rescue Capitan (now retired)
As a backup for the automatic exhaust port, there is always a bag valve mask (BVM) in the ICU/OR/ambulance that can be used to manually ventilate patients under anesthesia or intubation. After considering the design ideas of modern air vents, I decided to use the old-fashioned iron lung to be the most reliable for this situation. One reason is that they used this design and kept it for so long in the past. Considering its simplicity and cheapness, it is very reliable and safe, and it is easy to pump manually in the event of a power failure, which is better than BVM And when the person’s ventilator is tired and may jerk the tube, there is no risk of extubation, nor the risk of tube esophagus (patients die within about 4-5 minutes). The only drawback is mobility, but in this case, we are not talking about life imprisonment for “lungs”. For operations with a high patient care rate, it is very important to alert based on breath measurement (exhaled CO2), because the o2 sitting position in hypoventilated patients can maintain close to 100% for a long time, and the blood The co2 acidity will pickle and kill everything. The brain is dying. As for oxygen, yes, any gas operation can meet any medical need, but it may not be certified, so an inexpensive method of verifying purity and safety would make the situation better. Therefore, if you need a lot of ventilation, I suggest-DIY design of iron lung (simple Sten gun project; starting from standard parts design)-industrial oxygen supply-shotgun airway technology course (1-2 days), understand the basics of EMT Knowledge and other emergency personnel or medical personnel need to manage a large number of air outlets. It is important to rotate emergency airway technicians every one or two hours and conduct strict supervision so that they cannot leave easily.
How to use a simple rubber one-way valve (enough to attract chest wounds) and a large rubber diaphragm to seal one end of a cylinder large enough to hold a person. Then… Will the bicycle on the frame with oval drive wheels alternately push and then pull onto the diaphragm? Can be easily (though admitted: probably) be calibrated to at least a reasonable level. We do what we must do.
The same goes for iron lungs: it was originally invented to treat en nerve palsy (control patients’ muscles) caused by polio. These patients breathe ambient air and their lung function is intact (compliance, oxygen diffusion, etc.), I don’t think iron lung type equipment will benefit patients in the COVID-19 environment. Due to a large number of infections (COVID-19 virus + bacterial superinfection) accompanied by edema, the lung function of patients with COVID-19 is severely damaged. Both can lead to reduced oxygen diffusion and reduced lung compliance. I think most people will die from ARDS and multiple organ failure. Therefore, we need a higher oxygen concentration (up to 100%) and a higher ventilation pressure (up to 30mmHg, which may only be higher for a short time) to keep all lung segments open and press oxygen into the red blood cells through pulmonary edema.
Traditional o2 nasal cannula (up to 6 liters of air per minute)>mask and reservoir (up to 15 liters of air per minute)>high flow nasal cannula (20-60 liters of O2 per minute, adjustable FiO2)>intermittent CPAP mask>Turn on CPAP setting of respirator (PEEP 5mmHg, adjustable FiO2)> Respirator on BIPAP setting (maximum pressure 30mmHg, PEEP 5mmHg, adjustable FiO2)> ECMO
Regarding the project, I suggest dividing it into several groups according to the cascade (high-flow nasal intubation group, CPAP group, BIPAP group, etc.). There may be several projects in each group, depending on the method used (reuse of existing products and construction/crack new machines) and use cases (outside and inside the hospital). I think the biggest concern is the procurement of oxygen and electricity in the environment outside the hospital.
The key specification of the open source vent is that it must be made of parts that are already available everywhere. We may need 500,000 in a month. These parts should be things you can buy at Home Depot or Wal-Mart. The design requires a training plan with medical experts before designing mechanical design, mobile phone applications, 3D models of printable accessories and training videos. In addition, FDA regulations and legal responsibilities will need to be waived, so government support is needed. I contacted my councillor’s office. They sent me to the FDA website for urgent approval. It can be made by companies that make custom pneumatic or hydraulic systems. Maybe mechanics or HVAC technology can be achieved through online instructions. We met with 6 senior engineers, CTOs, clinicians and managers who have worked in the medical respiratory business for 10-30 years. We put forward some ideas. The first is an improved CPAP machine that can help people at home. It uses an oxygen-enhanced CPAP machine with pipes in a bucket or trash can with water to enhance the anti-exhalation (end-expiratory pressure, also known as PEEP). Capturing the breath underwater can prevent the virus from escaping into the room. The oxygen and extra pressure in the lungs help to get more oxygen into the damaged lungs, hoping to give them more time to build antibodies. This requires the source of the mask (which may be thermoformed or 3D printed, or adapted from a spray-painted respirator. The second is a time-cycle pressure-limiting mechanical respirator. It can use a workshop vacuum with a dimmer switch The device is used for adjustable pressure air supply, the improved sprinkler valve is used for inhalation and exhalation valves, all controlled by the mobile phone through the headset connector or other adjustable timers, and the stereo sound can be used to amplify the signal of the mobile phone (these components have been If the ventilator runs out, the tent in the hospital parking lot will produce a peak inhalation pressure of 50-100 cm H2O and a 20-50 cm expiratory pressure (PEEP) oxygen level of 40-60%. If an oxygen meter is not available, a pulse oximeter can be used for titration. In both cases, the patient may need oxygen. The oxygen can be supplied through the pipeline of the hospital storage tank, the storage tank during welding, or the Dewar. Supplier e. If there is a problem with oxygen distribution, you can use glass fiber insulated steel drums for liquid oxygen distribution. These ventilation methods may atomize the virus in the patient, resulting in the need to capture 100% of the exhaled breath into the filter or fume hood , Thus making the patient exhausted, exhausted outdoors or bubbling in bleach.
It can work, but the volume is large. Ultraviolet rays can kill viruses, ultraviolet rays and other bacteria. In addition, when exposed to ultraviolet rays, vitamin D3 is produced in the skin. This means that before you even need a ventilator, a pure A sunbed may be a good choice for treatment.
T cells clear vitamin D to activate to kill virus cells! Ultraviolet light makes an excellent disinfectant possible! …. Ultraviolet B/C lights will damage DNA to kill it. Although UVA is indeed safer for human exposure. In the sun (as long as it does not burn), it can be a good way to be healthy!
It is used for pond, swimming/jacuzzi water treatment! Hand sanitizer is fine too! More research is needed to better understand the benefits and dangers of sunlight!
Similarly, the appearance that may be relevant seems that some people have made extensive efforts in the following way:
Hi, can you tell me, if possible, which O2 sensor can I buy and hope to be compatible with the arduino platform?
“Therefore, if there is a large demand for ventilation, I suggest-DIY design for iron lungs for ventilation”
In addition, when it is constructed as a rollable cart, it has the advantage of not occupying a bed. It is narrower than a standard bed.
Yes, the iron lung works. What’s wrong with them now. Short notice is the easiest, and it is not too difficult for anyone with engineering and electrical knowledge.
Looking at the response, has anyone thought of a simple modification, that is, adding two check valves to a fire bellows device and connecting a flywheel with a regulator to the connecting rod, so that the stroke length can be adjusted to control The volume of each pump of the bellows. The intake valve can also be connected to the oxygen feed system to increase the o2 content. The last part will propose a method to process and purify the gas discharged from the lungs… just an idea.
Can CPAP/BiPAP machines be cracked by software to act as repeaters? Some BiPAP models are almost the same as the equipment sold as ventilators. It will not help oxygenation, but I think oxygen problems are easier to solve (welding gas, oxygen generators are more common household medical equipment)
Utilize COTS…off-the-shelf commodities…anything that can be reused…is the baby bottle lining “sterile enough” to line the parts that otherwise must be made of sterilizable materials or specific non-toxic materials? Can we add a bellows pump to them? Is a real HEPA vacuum cleaner suitable for air treatment after patients?
Yes, these “must be certified” answers are myopic and absurd. Leave the little man behind the curtains alone.
I think in Sudan or India, when millions of people are killed, even if they only work 70% of the time (not work), they are happy to use it, which means death.
It’s great to share possible 3d printable parts projects so that everyone can join…
Yes, most of the non-critical components that can be easily manufactured with any filament on most printers would be a good design goal to achieve “distributed manufacturing” so that parts can be manufactured by volunteers or small 3D workshops, And can be assembled at the assembly point. need.
Over the years, I have seen many attempts of such projects, and 3d printing is not what you need. Non-critical components can be made by vacuum forming, metal or plastic manufacturing, traditional machining and even woodworking processes, which are faster, cheaper and more durable. If it is not simply converted into COTS (stock) parts. 3D filament printing is simply not optimal for this kind of work. I was investigating how to replace damaged hospital bed wheels in Nepal and suggested using simple razor pedal wheels. Cheap, easy, available, and ready to use right away. After a week of fighting with a diy filament printer, I hope those people think-PRINT-the wheels of hospital beds have failed, and then try to print them on wood, wire and all other reinforcements to prevent them from breaking. It’s all because their altar is dedicated to only one god, and PRUSA is his name. People die for this vanity.
I made an open excel list with potential 3D printed parts needed for corona. If you have anything, please add it to the list.
You must first let the hospital install UV bulbs in the HVAC system to truly ensure that the UV bulbs will not spread to other units/floors. Stairs and elevators should also use them.
N95 mask_CAN_ can be reused, provided that you do not share the mask (and will not be soaked by saliva, sputum or 100% humidity).
You should not use steam because it will mess up the filter. Part of the effect of N95 is that the filter is electrostatically charged and performs excellent functions when dry.
The UV bulb/sterilizer/autoclave is very simple, it is an ordinary fluorescent bulb without phosphor coating inside.
The ozone generator is also very simple. The flyback transformer from the neon beer sign, the terminals of which are connected to 2 aluminum/steel screens or the chicken wire on each side of the plexiglass/plexiglass, will produce so much ozone in 2 minutes, the air in the room Smells like thunderstorm and can cough. (I don’t need to say that it generates a lot of amps and how dangerous it is). Obviously, Jacob’s ladder device also produces ozone.
Well, yes, unrestrained cough tape will undoubtedly help those suffering from uncontrollable cough ointments: -D may be helpful for vacancies that are known to be exposed and fully used for disinfection.
The sterilization lamp is made of UV-C passable quartz, while the illuminating fluorescent lamp is made of ordinary glass, so the phosphor is not the only difference. But the high-pressure mercury vapor lamp (used as a street lamp) can be converted to UV-C by breaking the outer bulb (the inner bulb with discharge function is quartz).
This is a great idea. One commenter pointed out that the device described is not exactly a ventilator-is it accurate? If so, please update the post so that we have a better understanding of the baseline. Anyone with technical knowledge must be involved, which is very important. It is not yet clear to what extent the epidemic will worsen, and this work is still in a leading position. (By the way, it reminds me of the scene of Apollo 13, where engineers made carbon dioxide filters out of parts.)
Will definitely laugh at the “But medical device regulations!” post. The idea is not to substitute these for medical equipment. The idea is to use them for a few weeks and then discard them once the COVID-19 epidemic reaches the other end of the bell curve and can cope with regular hospital operations (using its existing regulated equipment), or society collapses. The priority of device authentication is relatively low. When the alternative is “unregulated equipment” or possible death, I suspect that few people will choose to die.
In terms of actual short-term use, the main concern is air pollution through the warm water bath channel. The water must be acceptable sterile water: use a total loss circulation system (purified municipal tap water in the first water country may be acceptable (water flows in from the tap, is heated by a heater, and then passes through the chamber with bubbles in it) ) Passed and discarded). If there is no continuous supply of clean water, things can get tricky. The chemical sterilization method used for circulating water will not require the release of gas in the air stream (or any released gas must be unpleasant in the worst case, but not actually harmful). It can work through the boiling stage or extremely high intensity UV treatment with sufficient residence time. The design of the bubbling chamber is tricky. Its size needs to avoid drawing water into the air stream, but not too large to avoid accumulation of stagnant film in a warm and humid environment.
Remember, a teaspoon of bleach per gallon of chemical water treatment, or six drops of iodine per gallon of iodine also requires an hour of residence time to be effective.
Regarding non-sterile water: instead of using 0.9% sterile saline solution (if it does not corrode your machine). This should still be available in the hospital. When testing drugs in my doctoral thesis, I use them as a vehicle for inhaling horses (I am a veterinarian). At least it is sterile, and since the concentration of electrolytes is the same as that in the body, it is less irritating than (more or less) pure water.
One thing you should all be aware of: We are talking about highly critical human patients whose lungs are already under the greatest pressure. Every small error, for example-a certain amount of pathogens/particulates in the air (filtering?)-a minimum pressure for a certain period of time is too high (can it be adjusted precisely?)-other volatile substances in the air (from rubber or plastic ) Causes other inflammations in the lower respiratory tract-the accumulation of CO2 (dissolved into HCO3- and H+, will change the pH in the lungs and blood!) may be the difference between life and death.
Just a comment. I’m not talking about regulations, but I have ventilated more than 2,000 horses under general anesthesia, and considering their lung function, horses are more important than humans. Don’t underestimate the danger!
Well, there is already a shortage of medical grade saline (0.9%) nationwide, but there is still good information.
Hmm, fresh black coffee? I think it has been heated to above 50 degrees Celsius and contains some natural antiviral drugs, phenols, and caffeic acid. But yes, if you have extra coffee making ability, you can use it to heat water and sprinkle salt into it.
This one. all of these. If you are not a medical professional, you can better serve your time and energy to prevent the local population from being polluted. Become your hero today to save someone who didn’t need a ventilator from the beginning.
Hi, Dr. Leclerc, I am a medical expert and I am working on some engineering projects. Now I am looking for a medical consultant. Are you interested?
How much volume and pressure does it take to breathe every 5 seconds? It is enough to provide patients with 15 liters of oxygen per minute.
Hydrogen is quite new as a medical gas for the treatment of respiratory diseases. It is used to treat ARDS in Hubei, China. It might be nice to use it with regular oxygen to integrate with the ventilator and add its settings. Hydrogen has been shown to inhibit cytokines. This is a document about hydrogen as a medical gas-
I am an electrical and deep embedded engineer, focusing on safety-critical systems. My PhD thesis is about the software architecture of such systems. If I think it is feasible, I am willing to support the project. Let me know if I can help.
Hi Thomas-if you are still interested let me know-there are some ideas that I am a respiratory therapist, except Bill.
So who will pay for the FDA (or any local fees) qualification certificates? The factories that want to sell it will have to be certified. That’s expensive.
If you want to produce a product that will not be used in the United States, you do not need the FDA. For example, even if it has not been approved by the FDA, the Indians will be happy to choose this option (but obviously it works). Let’s see if anyone in the United States will die because they don’t want to use equipment that has not been approved by the FDA. By the way, it’s great to see all these American-centric ideas emerge, and this kind of shit is sweeping the world. We are just one person, so we need to think like one person.
What if oxygen is generated by pure water electrolysis (ie on graphite electrodes powered by a standard power source) and added to the patient’s air? Of course, hydrogen is also produced-hydrogen can be used to recover some of the energy, or it can be released outside the building with simpler equipment.
Medical professionals can answer this question better than me, but my girlfriend (who is learning to be a doctor) explained this to me. When pure oxygen is given, the body becomes lazy. You can easily get enough oxygen, so you don’t have to breathe in too much oxygen as in other situations. Because you inhale less, exhale less. This will accumulate carbon dioxide, which is harmful to your health.
I can say that your oxygen is almost correct, especially toxic to newborns. You are talking about patients with COPD, a disease, too much oxygen will interrupt their breathing drive, but most patients There is no COPD, and if they need so much oxygen-of course they should not restrict oxygen, we understand 100% of COPD patients as
Thank you. As an RT, it is great to see others move on with rational voices. And because there seems to be no consensus. I have been looking for ways to make the 3D printer work properly. These are just two sites with downloadable STL files.
The most promising needs antibacterial silk to print masks. The advantage is that it is permanent. Here are the masks I found interesting:® antibacterial orange filament 1.75mm, PLA that can kill bacteria (single pack)
Not sure if you can use a printer to make masks, M95 masks are designed to allow air to enter, but can exclude viruses, which are much smaller than most fabric weaves.
One area I want to see now is the body protection system used in the movie “Andromeda”. There are many reasons-mainly for patients-as long as the patients in the room can use it, it is easy to get in and out, which saves time and more. It is safe and can be cleaned and reused. Entering or leaving the isolation room is expensive and time-consuming, and it is very hard for busy staff, and there are also facilities factors that require an isolation room for typical isolation.
Although the current infection does not guarantee the isolation level, please consider the Ebola virus. -Email me
People who have the necessary medical knowledge and experience are the ultimate bottleneck in expanding the number of ICU beds. solve this problem.
We will help. We are a team of manufacturers from Southwest Colorado. The Powerhouse of MakerLab @杜兰戈 (Durango). Today we discussed this exact thing before reading this article. What direction is there as to whether someone takes the lead in coordinating collective efforts? It seems that the design needs to be copied quickly and easily. Found this too.
I am an engineer from Siemens Energy. He lives on low-cost, high-end inspection robots. I also want to provide my expertise in the field of architecture and electronics to help with this project. Especially when it comes to 3D printable designs (masks, nozzles, adapters, housings, etc.). In my opinion, 3D printers are available in large numbers almost everywhere and should be used for such programs when possible. We need someone to lead the project and can define the first work package and the right team to start. We will also need volunteers from various fields, such as medical, intensive care, 3D design, fluid mechanics, electronics, procurement, social media, etc. They don’t want to express their opinions, but want to get the job done!
Hi Stefan, let me talk about the vents for a while. I am a respiratory therapist and army and navy combat doctor, so I am used to working in the field. But I am not an engineer. I have a design and can receive help from the Hope Foundation on Monday. If I can, I can use one hand.
I can help start work by suggesting that we not only look at the vents themselves, but also the resources for operating the vents. Most vents require 50 PSI of air and oxygen, and all of them require 120V. It may not be available everywhere. Therefore, including it independently will help, rather than waste resources. The most important thing is reliability. So keep it simple. My suggestion is to make a machine similar to MA1, there are other machines there-birds and everyone, but every therapist knows MA1 and how it works. We call them bulletproof certificates.
They include bellows for volume control (required for precise control), a controller motor for putting the volume into the loop, and a device for mixing gas to control oxygen. May need to control PEEP methods. The pressure remaining in the system between breaths. If you exceed the set limit, you will need to sound an alarm that the pressure is too high-don’t blow your lungs, if we can add a method of spontaneous breathing. If necessary, it will be explained in detail.
There are many options for circuits and exhalation valves. They are all available on the market, but it is recommended to use a simple circuit with an exhalation valve part of the exhaust valve. This is what it looks like now and how the circuit is made. There are several different ideas for exhalation valves-most use pneumatic valves that open and close all air to escape, but Servo uses a flexible tube, which is clamped by a metal arm, and has a beautiful design.
In addition to manufacturing plants or factories that can be manufactured at home, what if we provide design solutions to all manufacturer spaces and convene the manufacturer community to extract these things. Does everyone get off work?
Why not just produce designs based on expired patents actually manufactured? I think the ventilator is many years earlier than 2003. The requirement of the current crisis is not to produce ventilators with absolutely the latest design, but to quickly produce functional ventilators for sick patients. I am not sure how many blockers the FDA will approve. Maybe so, we simply wrote off hundreds, thousands or millions of lives in the name of compliance. Alternatively, there may be a suitable set of exemptions that can cover providers using the technology. I don’t know the answer, but I have reached agreement with others who advocate an urgent need for open technology design.
Bubble CPAP (developed by my friend Jenny Wung, MD at Columbia Baby Hospital)
If it collapses completely, the death toll may be even greater. I will conduct a “full Apollo 13″ test on this to avoid prosecution. In fact, if they want to create thousands of “prisoners of conscience” after saving lives, then they can expect the biggest civil unrest in history. If my actions saved dozens of people, I would actually be willing and proud to serve time, what about you?
Hi, just an idea, but can BMP085 or similar sensors be used? I used Polymorph to make a BMP085 to needle converter in an earlier experiment, and it worked very well! Also heavy. Hydrogen and pyrolytic graphite can indeed be used. I did think of the idea of ​​using the high-speed DC fans originally used for PC cooling, but they can play a role in this application. It is also possible to lock multiple small fans together using an existing speed controller, although you need to pay attention to hygiene as others have mentioned
Reply. Medical ethics. If your design is reasonable, no one will criticize your behavior. It is up to the individual doctor to decide whether to use something that might help instead of doing nothing. I hope that the vast majority of people will vote with their conscience and organize their documents later.
Therefore, if the PEEP (Positive End Pressure) valve with iron lungs does not work well, it is believed that the pressure of PEEP with vent holes will help force fluid to flow out of the alveoli and into the circulatory system. However, at least when the patient is tired from using iron lungs, can o2 sit up with industrial oxygen and support breathing. I’m reading a Wikipedia article. There are clay seals on the head and neck (probably the joints of the box). Wow, this is really a stone age DIY. Just make sure that the wet clay does not drag the body temperature. It is enough to use iron to bend the patient’s nasal cannula or just put an oxygen tent on top of the head. You only need to make the ppO2 in the air high enough to get a good O2 sitting posture and exchange enough air to prevent CO2 acidosis. I still form a world in which you can firmly control the trachea of ​​any unconscious person. If we need to control it anyway, it will paralyze them (don’t worry about RSI we will also provide something to fix it, It will block the memory) BTW in my service, we do all the BVM, if the helicopter is not available, sometimes bouncing in the wilderness for several hours, but rare transportation requires our real vents and nurses or RT. I know that the iron lung has disappeared, and the surgically installed airway is to improve the quality of life and mobility, not to live or at least sleep in the tube. Obviously, it can also provide almost 100% airway control and continuous immediate access to the patient.
I think we may have forgotten all this. At least I think it’s about. Put forward some ideas to make up for the lack of mechanical ventilators in current hospitals. Dr. Bird was not afraid of the regulations at the time, but felt that there was a need and worked hard to fill this gap. (1) Having worked in the medical field for many years, this is more than I remembered. We have to work hard according to our own situation. We use PR2 (2) as ventilators. They are therapeutic machines, but without MA1, they will provide positive pressure ventilation in critical moments. (3) The super peeping device I mentioned above is actually done by immersing the exhalation hose in water. Trash can full of water. The depth of the hose in the water regulates the pressure.
I carried out some of the first helicopter portable vents in the early 70s to the mid 70s. As far as I know, this vent is experimental. I have studied lung iron (4) and breastplate (5). I also think that these inventors are not worried about the regulations in the early stages of development.
So this is what we should do… Stop thinking about killing patients with our ideas, but saving their lives in the pandemic. Let us keep our minds open. If there is something wonderful, then only in this way, we should worry about regulations and other issues.
(1) (2) -remember-this-old-ventilator (3) (4) ( 5)
Just by adding this most promising clue, we can hope that our collective brainpower can alleviate the coming crisis.
Disclaimer: I am a network and robotics engineer and do not know much about ventilators or their use. But I do know what sensors, actuators, control systems, and skilled manufacturers can do.
Therefore, if we want to provide a description of the problem, such as providing 250,000 mechanical ventilators to supplement the approximately 160,000 currently available US hospitals, we can consider the following situations:
1) Renovate all the old equipment in the hospital storage room 2) Attack the veterinary clinic because I believe that the veterinary OR machine can be adapted to human use 3) Modify the software in the bedside CPAP machine so that it can be used for a subset of patients 4 ) Enter an open source project to 3D print an updated version of the 1965 Harry Diamond Laboratory “Army Emergency Breathing Apparatus”. It is a piece of plastic, which obviously has a bistable fluid channel driven by compressed gas into it. It switches between inhalation and exhalation modes. The coolest thing about this design is its simplicity (no moving parts) and it may be easy to 3D print 5) The improved configurable vent has two valves and a bellows. I think it can be mass produced using irrigation control valves (from Home Depot) and manifold pressure sensors (from Napa auto parts)6. Bellows pusher with windshield wiper motor. It sounds primitive, but if you use the correct sensor and control system, it may work fine 7) (if all other methods fail, and if we still need 250,000 patients): Weld the 3RPM geared motor to 10′ Dozens of cams are placed on the long pipe. You can choose the number of cam lobes to approximate the specified number of breaths per minute and the height of the cam lobe for tidal volume. The cam drives a row of bellows, and the bellows drives a stack of tubes, which are delivered to dozens of patients in a large ward. Very ugly, but may expand
This is a simple design. It actually uses one of the manually operated Bag-Valve-Masks [] and puts it together with the motor/spindle Under the attached belt. To activate the airbag valve cover, the electric motor will run, wind the main shaft, and tighten the belt around the airbag. The patent contains photos;
Hi, I like this passion. But keep in mind that someone expects this to work, refurbish old machines-most of them go to Mexico or a third world country and are still in use, assuming the responsibility of keeping the old obsolete vents in the United States. If you want to try a brand new vent design based on Purritan Bennet MA1, it is simple and reliable-do you have the basics and may be enough to show how it works, but remember that they need a circuit to work- There is a valve on the MA1 circuit, so there may be a valve assembly on the vent, so it is easier to use. The heater and humidifier are good, but we are using HME now-so don’t sweat.
Using a single vent for multiple patients-sounds good, but it’s actually not an option-too many things can go wrong. A patient fell off and released the ventilator.
Your expertise is in working control motors, so-called demand valves and pressure sensors, which are what all vents are currently using. However, if you still want to build vents, please stick to the basics, and we can modify it later with accessories. It is usually necessary to provide a set volume set to cc or L in the range of 500 or 700 cc at a fixed rate (usually 8-10 bbm) so many times per minute. The percentage of oxygen (FiO2) is about 40%. Probably the peek should be increased by -5 cm, and the baseline flow is 10 L: / M would be good
I am happy to help, but I am an engineer who does not believe in reinventing wheels. Therefore, I need to know what the existing good models are doing and what we are trying to imitate. Ideally, I want the full specifications of an existing machine. This means everything, from tube size to controls. I’m fairly certain that many of us may knock down “ventilating fans” tomorrow, but most likely it is more dangerous than any virus. Therefore, what we need is the complete specification of the required machine? How much air, how often. Is heating/cooling required? Does it need to add other inputs (medicine? Moisture?) etc. to the airflow. If a complete design model is given and no professional parts are required, it will still take me several months (more than 6 months) to produce any product. Acceptable units, let alone the quantity that may be needed. Maybe there will be such a situation, we will need a very crude and easy to use version of the basic ventilator? However, we still need some basic specification about the function of this unit. Again, I would be happy to help you, but I need to know what I want to do.
This is definitely what is needed now. As I just posted, I think it is much easier to solve the limitations of existing ventilators with nebulization output than to come up with a new design. But first, we need expert guidance on what should be hacked and related specifications.
Hi Vinny-I am with you. I have been following the fan blog for a day and it is obvious that most people here don’t know how to make a fan (or anything else) as soon as they hear about 3D printing. I want to know how many “old” or broken ventilators are there? Is there an aftermarket for second-hand hospital equipment? Parts and consumables? Someone must have the user manual or service manual for these machines in some places. Or, if you are really lucky, provide a complete set of parts drawings and process sheets. . I would even steal a copy if needed. I have a complete mechanical workshop in Dotona Beach (Dotona Beach) and a local manufacturer of medical equipment (with clean room and certification), where I have been living. You can contact me at
1) Many doctors don’t understand technology. They use all the technologies smartly, but I’m talking about breaking things down and knowing how they work. 2) If they contribute to this, they may worry about responsibility, be accused of spreading panic and be condemned by their professional bodies. 3) This may be the reason why in all these groups you do not see intensive doctors formulating simple basic minimum specifications for ventilator design.
There are relatively basic designs for the transportation of patients and for use by the military in crises powered by compressed oxygen supplies, using pneumatic logic to cycle between the inhalation and exhalation phases and the use of venturis to carry air. In terms of safety and fault alarms, some do not meet all current requirements. For example, PneuPac, the original Draeger Oxylog and Bird Mk7 products. If you are not too critical of such regulatory details, they can implement Priority A, which is to ventilate patients reasonably. I’m not sure about this, but has Mr. T already announced that if any regulatory or legal issues prevent any company from continuing to produce products for this crisis, please don’t worry and take action? Consider using the existing basic streamlined design.
This British company seems to have designed some ventilators, maybe to see if they will be shared, a situation where manufacturing rights are delegated to various machinery / 3D printer owners
I thought I would check this blog based on Youtube videos to see where it is. It’s easy to see things that most people don’t know they don’t know. I am a mechanic and own a manufacturing company. I have been researching on the AC mode positive pressure fan system for several days, and the response here is like watching a monkey trying to figure out how to remove it from a tree Like an apple.
Justin, yes, there are a lot of useless posts here. It seems that the bag valve cover can be the basic start of DIY ventilators. This is a student project of MIT since 2010. DMD- 2010-MIT-E-Vent.pdf
Hi Justin, please check this website. They have just obtained certification from a Spanish medical institution. It is open source and has 2 designs, one for manufacturers and the other for mass production.
If you have something to prove that the device has been certified, then Id is very interested in seeing it.
Hello Gary, I told you a few days ago that the model has been officially approved by the Spanish medical institution. For more information about this model, please visit:
Hi, I can answer many of your questions. I am a respiratory therapist and I am designing my own ventilator. As far as the current model is concerned, the first row of vents requires 50 PSI of air to operate-they are pneumatically driven and there are 2 types, pressure circulation or volume circulation. Most vents used in hospitals are volumetric. Fixed volume and delivered multiple times per minute. What we should say is that most of the instruments are very sophisticated instruments-not very rugged-I learned on that machine that the most basic machine is MA1, which now usually has a setting, so in addition to breathing, they You can also breathe, called SIMV. Another less used one is called auxiliary control. Therefore, what you need is a machine that can provide a set pressure or volume, allow the patient to breathe on their own, provide a baseline pressure (called PEEP), and deliver mixed oxygen.
The old system was like a plumber, with pipes and hoses everywhere. The baby bird is a good example, but now the unit is more computerized and more refined. Watch the $30,000 worth of vents as the filter material enters the vents. They need power 120 and air oxygen. Therefore, in this case, don’t just look at the machine, don’t look at the resources required to operate the machine and the manpower required to use the machine.
What is urgently needed is a “performance specification” that the Department of Defense can provide, which specifies what the equipment should perform, not how the equipment should perform. This usually details the way the user operates the device and any tolerances from an interface perspective. There are some practical questions about each stakeholder (doctor, patient, medical technician) and what specific knowledge each role has to drive the equipment requirements. The doctor provides standard parameters to the certified medical technicians, who then configure the machine. This medical technology does not have the right to prioritize the functions of the ventilator. Doctors do not know how to operate the ventilator, nor do they understand how the ventilator’s HMI is usually arranged. Finally, most responsible hospitals do not have enough capacity to deal with the degraded products that are common in such crises. At some point, you don’t care about certification, but just want to keep yourself alive. The FDA bluntly said: “Uncertified regulators are usually worse than no ventilators.” They only care about liability. CFR-2012-title21-vol8-sec868-2875.pdf
3D printers can do some tasks well, such as copying plastic parts with the same material and sterilizing them. But this is not all, and the speed of 3D printing is too slow. Some 3D printers use materials that generate toxic vapors. Patients with pneumonia are absolutely prohibited from using this material. When used as a part of a ventilator, the part should not emit such vapor.
In the current situation, we need to use whatever we have, a copper pipe, maybe pvc. If nothing else. It is more practical to adapt to the existing valve than to design your own model and take a longer time to 3D print.
The wheel was invented more than a hundred years ago. Low technical content, easy to construct and operate. It is iron lung.
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Post time: Jan-21-2021

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