Ubwino ndi zovuta zamagetsi zosiyanasiyana

1. Valavu Chipata chipata imatanthawuza valavu yomwe membala wotseka (RAM) amayenda molunjika molunjika njira yolowera. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati njira yodulira payipi, ndiye kuti, yotseguka kwathunthu kapena yotseka. Nthawi zambiri, mavavu azipata sagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati kuwongolera kuyenda. Thiabendazole angagwiritsidwe ntchito kuthamanga otsika kutentha kapena kutentha ndi kuthamanga, ndipo akhoza kupanga zipangizo zosiyanasiyana valavu. Koma valavu yamageti siyimagwiritsidwa ntchito m'mapaipi onyamula matope ndi zina zofalitsa

valavu chipata

Ubwino:

① Kukana kwamadzimadzi ndikochepa;

② Makokedwe ofunikira kutsegulira ndi kutseka ndi ochepa;

③ Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito mu payipi yolumikizira ma intaneti yomwe sing'anga ikuyenda mbali ziwiri, ndiko kuti, kayendedwe ka sing'anga sikamatha;

④ Mukatseguka kwathunthu, kukokoloka kwa kusindikiza pamwamba pogwiritsa ntchito sing'anga kumakhala kocheperako kuposa kwa valavu yoyimitsa;

⑤ Kapangidwe ka thupi ndikosavuta ndipo ukadaulo wopanga ndiwabwino;

⑥ Kutalika kwa kapangidweka ndi kofupikitsa.

Zoyipa:

① Makulidwe akunja ndi kutalika kwazitseko ndi zazikulu, ndipo malo oyikiranso ndi akulu;

Of Potsekula ndi kutseka, kusindikiza kumangokhala kovuta, ndipo mikangano ndiyokulu, ngakhale ndikosavuta kuyambitsa kukhumudwa pakatentha kwambiri;

Ally Nthawi zambiri, mavavu amzipata amakhala ndi malo osindikizira awiri, omwe amawonjezera zovuta pakukonza, kupera ndi kukonza;

Opening Nthawi yotsegulira ndi kutseka ndi yayitali.

2. Valavu ya gulugufe ndi valavu yomwe imagwiritsa ntchito magawo otsegulira ndi kutsekera gawo kutembenukira uku ndi uku pafupifupi 90 ° kutsegula, kutseka ndikusintha gawo lamadzimadzi.

valavu gulugufe

Ubwino:

① Ili ndi mawonekedwe osavuta, voliyumu yaying'ono, kulemera kopepuka komanso kugwiritsidwa ntchito pang'ono, ndipo sigwiritsidwa ntchito mu valavu yayikulu;

② Kutsegula ndi kutseka ndikofulumira, ndipo kukana kwakanthawi ndikochepa;

③ Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pakatikati ndi tinthu tomwe timayimitsidwa, ndipo itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito ngati ufa ndi maginito potengera mphamvu yosindikiza pamwamba. Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito kutsegulira ndi kutseka kwa maipi ndi mpweya wotulutsa mapaipi, ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri m'mapaipi amafuta ndi njira zamagetsi zamagetsi, mafakitale opepuka, magetsi ndi machitidwe a petrochemical.

Zoyipa:

Range Magulu oyenda samakhala akulu, pomwe kutsegula kumafikira 30%, kutsika kudzalowa kuposa 95%;

② Chifukwa chakuchepa kwa kapangidwe ka valavu ya gulugufe komanso kusindikiza, sizoyenera kutentha kwapamwamba komanso kuthamanga kwa mapaipi. Kutentha kwakukulu kogwira ntchito kuli pansipa 300 ℃ ndi PN40;

③ Ntchito yosindikiza ndiyabwino poyerekeza ndi valavu ya mpira ndi valavu yoyimitsa, motero siyokwera kwambiri kusindikiza.

3. Valavu ya mpira : imachokera ku valavu ya pulagi. Mbali zake zotsegulira ndi zotsekera ndi gawo, lomwe limatha kutsegulidwa ndikutseka potembenuza mpira 90 ° mozungulira mzere wa tsinde. Valavu ya mpira imagwiritsidwa ntchito payipi kudula, kugawa ndikusintha mayendedwe apakatikati. Valavu yomwe idapangidwa ngati kutsegula kofanana ndi V imakhalanso ndi ntchito yoyenda bwino.

valavu mpira

Ubwino:

Resistance Kutaya kwamphamvu ndikotsika kwambiri (kwenikweni 0);

② Itha kugwiritsidwa ntchito poyipitsa komanso poyambira pothira madzi mosadukiza chifukwa siyingagwire ntchito (popanda mafuta);

③ Pakakhala kuthamanga ndi kutentha, kusindikiza kumatha kukwaniritsidwa kwathunthu;

Can Itha kuzindikira kutsegula ndi kutseka mwachangu, ndipo nthawi yotsegulira ndi kutsekera kwazinthu zina ndi 0.05-0.1s zokha, kuti zitsimikizire kuti zitha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pamakina oyeserera a benchi yoyeserera. Valavu ikatsegulidwa ndikutseka mwachangu, opaleshoniyi imakhala yopanda tanthauzo;

Parts Mbali zotsekera mpira zitha kupezeka pomwe pali malire;

⑥ Makina ogwira ntchito amasindikizidwa moyenera mbali zonse;

⑦ Mukatseguka kwathunthu komanso kutsekedwa kwathunthu, malo osindikizira a mpira ndi mpando amakhala kutali ndi sing'anga, motero sing'anga chodutsa pa valavu mwachangu sichimapangitsa kukokoloka kwadothi;

⑧ Imawonedwa ngati kapangidwe ka valavu kotsika kwambiri chifukwa cha kapangidwe kake kakang'ono komanso kulemera kwake;

Body Thupi la valavu ndilofanana, makamaka kapangidwe ka thupi la valavu, lomwe limatha kuthana ndi vuto la chitoliro bwino;

Parts Zigawo zotsekera zimatha kulimbana ndi kuthamanga kwakukulu mukamatseka. (11) valavu yamiyala yokhala ndi ma valavu otetezedwa bwino imatha kuyikidwa m'manda mwachindunji, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti ma valavu azikhala opanda dzimbiri, ndipo moyo wautali kwambiri ungafikire zaka 30, womwe ndi valavu yabwino kwambiri pamapayipi amafuta ndi gasi.

Zoyipa:

① Chifukwa mphete yayikulu yosindikiza ya mpando wa valavu ndi polytetrafluoroethylene, imalowa pafupifupi pafupifupi zinthu zonse zamankhwala, ndipo ili ndi mawonekedwe a koyefishienti yaying'ono, magwiridwe antchito, osavuta kukalamba, kugwiritsa ntchito kutentha kosiyanasiyana ndi magwiridwe antchito abwino. Koma matupi a polytetrafluoroethylene, kuphatikiza koyefishienti yayikulu, kukhudzika kozizira kozizira komanso kutenthetsa koyipa, kumafuna kapangidwe ka chisindikizo cha mpando kuti chikhale mozungulira izi. Chifukwa chake, pamene kusindikiza kumakhala kovuta, kudalirika kwa chidindicho kumawonongeka. Kuphatikiza apo, kutentha kwa polytetrafluoroethylene ndikotsika, ndipo kumatha kugwiritsidwa ntchito pansi pa 180 ℃. Pamwambapa kutentha, kusindikiza kumakalamba. Koma polingalira za ntchito yayitali, ingogwiritsidwa ntchito pa 120 ℃.

② Kugwiritsa ntchito kayendetsedwe kake ndi koyipa kuposa komwe kumayendera valavu, makamaka valavu yamagetsi (kapena valavu yamagetsi).

4. Lekani valavu : amatanthauza valavu yomwe membala wotseka (disc) amayenda pakati pa mpando. Malinga ndi mayendedwe a disc, kusintha kwa mpando wa valavu kutseguka ndikofanana ndi disc disc. Chifukwa kutseguka kapena kutsekeka kwa tsinde la valavu ndikochepa, ndipo kumakhala ndi ntchito yodula yodalirika, ndipo chifukwa kusintha kwa mpando wa valavu ndikofanana ndendende ndi disc ya valve, ndiyabwino kwambiri kuwongolera mayendedwe. Chifukwa chake, valavu yamtunduwu imayenda kwambiri kuti igwirizane pakucheka kapena kuwongolera ndi kupindika.

siyani valavu

Ubwino:

The Mukamatsegula ndikutseka, mkangano pakati pa disc ndi malo osindikizira a thupi la valavu ndi wocheperako poyerekeza ndi valavu yapa chipata, chifukwa chake sichimatha.

Opening Kutsegulira kotsegulira ndi 1/4 yokha ya mpando wa valavu, motero ndi wocheperako kuposa valavu yapa chipata;

Ally Nthawi zambiri, pamakhala chisindikizo chimodzi chokha pa thupi la valavu ndi disc, motero njira yopangira ndiyabwino komanso yosavuta kusamalira;

④ Chifukwa kudzaza kwake ndi chisakanizo cha asibesitosi ndi graphite, kutentha kwa kutentha kumakhala kwakukulu. Nthawi zambiri, ma valve oyimilira amagwiritsidwa ntchito mavavu oyendera nthunzi.

Zoyipa:

① Chifukwa mayendedwe apakatikati kudzera pa valavu amasintha, kuchepa kwakanthawi kwa valavu yakuyimilira ndikokwera kuposa mitundu ina yamagetsi;

② Chifukwa cha sitiroko yayitali, liwiro lotseguka limachedwa pang'onopang'ono kuposa la valavu ya mpira.

5. Valavu ya pulagi : amatanthauza valavu yoyenda mozungulira yokhala ndi mbali zotsekedwa ndi plunger. Kudzera pa 90 ° kasinthasintha, doko lapa pulagi ya valavu limalumikizidwa kapena kupatukana ndi doko lanyumba yamagetsi, kuti izindikire kutsegula kapena kutseka. Pulagi akhoza kukhala cylindrical kapena mawonekedwe conical. Mfundoyi ikufanana ndi valavu ya mpira. Mpira valavu kupangika pamaziko a valavu pulagi, yomwe imagwiritsidwa ntchito kugwilitsila ntchito mafuta ndi makampani petrochemical.

6. Valavu yachitetezo : imatanthawuza chida chodzitetezera mopitilira muyeso pachombo chamagetsi, zida kapena payipi. Kupanikizika kwa zida, chotengera kapena payipi kukwera kuposa mtengo wololezeka, valavu imatseguka yokha kenako kutulutsa zonsezo kuti zisawononge zida, chotengera kapena payipi komanso kukakamizidwa kuti kukwere mosalekeza; kupanikizika kukatsika pamtengo womwe watchulidwa, valavu idzatsekedwa zokha komanso munthawi yake kuteteza magwiridwe antchito a zida, chotengera kapena payipi.

vavu yolamulira madzi

7. Msampha wa nthunzi: mkati mwa nthunzi ndi mpweya wothinikizika, padzakhala condensate ina yopangidwa. Pofuna kuonetsetsa kuti chipangizocho chikuyenda bwino komanso motetezeka, atolankhani opanda pake komanso owopsawa ayenera kutulutsidwa munthawi yake kuti agwiritse ntchito chipangizocho. Ili ndi ntchito zotsatirazi: can imatha kuchotsa condensate mwachangu; ② kupewa kutuluka kwa nthunzi; ③ utsi mpweya ndi zina non condensable mpweya.

8. Valavu yochepetsera kupanikizika : ndi valavu yomwe imachepetsa kukoka kwa mpweya kuti ikufike pakakakamizo kofunikirako pakasinthidwe, ndikudalira mphamvu ya sing'anga yokha kuti kukhathamira kwake kuzikhala kolimba.

vavu yolamulira madzi

9. Chongani valavu kauntala-otaya, valavu cheke, valavu kuthamanga kumbuyo ndi valavu njira imodzi. Mavavu awa amatsegulidwa ndikutseka ndi mphamvu yopangidwa ndi kutuluka kwa payipi payokha, ndipo ndi ya valavu yodziwikiratu. Chongani vavu ntchito mu dongosolo payipi, ntchito yake yaikulu ndi kuteteza backflow sing'anga, kuteteza mpope ndi galimoto galimoto kuchokera n'zosiyana, ndi kumaliseche kwa sing'anga chidebe. Chongani vavu Angagwiritsidwenso ntchito kupereka dongosolo wothandizira ndi kuthamanga pamwamba pa kuthamanga dongosolo. Ikhoza kugawidwa mu mtundu wa kugwedezeka (kusinthasintha malinga ndi mphamvu yokoka) ndikukweza mtundu (kusunthira limodzi).

cheke valavu

 


Nthawi yamakalata: Mar-31-2021

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